Unit 11: Classification of Living Things Flashcards


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created 8 years ago by hstiles
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Taxonomy, Classification, Viruses, Prokaryotes, Protist, Fungi, Plants, Animals
updated 3 years ago by hstiles
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9th grade, 10th grade, 11th grade, 12th grade
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biology
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1

Taxonomy

The science of naming and classifying organisms based on their natural relationships

2

Phylogeny

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The evolutionary history of organisms

3

Binomial Nomenclature

2 part naming system of organisms designed by Linnaus.

Uses Genus and species (specific epithet)

Puma concolor

4

Classification System

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Do Kids Prefer Cheese or Fried Green Spinach

5

Domain

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Broadest, most inclusive group in classification. All life fits in these 3 domains.

Bacteria and Archaens are prokaryotic and single celled cells

Eukaryota include all organisms the have eukaryotic cells, can be single celled or multicellular organisms

6

Phylogenetic Tree

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Shows how groups of organisms are related through common ancestor. Organisms more closely related are closer on tree.

7

Dichotomous Key

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Tool used to help scientists classify and identify organisms using paired statements.

8

Virus

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A nonliving particle that reproduces by invading and using the mechanisms of a host cell. Made of protein coat surrounding DNA or RNA.

9

Lytic Cycle of Viruses

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Life cycle of virus where virus attaches to cell, penetrates cell by injecting its DNA (or RNA) into the cell. The cell replicates the viral genes and produces viral proteins to assemble new viruses. The cell bursts open and releases the new viruses.

10

Lysogenic Cycle of Viruses

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Life cycle of virus where virus attaches to cell, penetrates cell by injecting its DNA (or RNA) into the cell. DNA becomes part of the cell's genome and when the host cell replicates, it also replicates the viral DNA. After virus genes are activated, it will then enter into lytic cycle to form viruses and release them.

11

Autotrophs

Organisms that make their own food either through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

12

Heterotrophs

Organisms that need to eat other organisms for food.

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Bacteria

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Prokaryotic single celled organisms.

DNA is one circular chromosome, can be autotrophic or heterotrophic, have cell walls made of peptidoglycan, and reproduce by binary fission.

14

Archaea

Prokaryotic single celled organisms that mostly live in harsh environments.

More closely related to eukaryotes chemically than bacteria. Have cell walls made of lipids and contain similar proteins in ribosomes as eukaryotes.

15

Protists

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Wide range of organisms in domain Eukarya. Can be multicellular or unicellular and can be autotrophic or heterotrophic.

16

Fungi

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Organisms in the domain Eukarya that have

  • cell walls made of chitin
  • heterotrophic
  • cells arranged in filaments
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Animals

Diverse organisms in domain eukarya that

  • multicellular
  • heterotropic
  • digest food inside of body
  • can reproduce sexually
  • do not have cell walls
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Bilateral Symmetry

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Body plan which has symmetry around a single line.

19

Radial Symmetry

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Body plan with symmetry around a point.

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Asymmetry

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Body plan without symmetry

21

Plants

Organisms in the domain eukarya that:

  • multicellular
  • photosynthetic
  • have cuticle and most have stomata
22

Seed

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Protective structure around plant embryo. Presence or absence of a seed is used to classify plants.

23

Seedless Nonvascular Plants

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Plants that lack specialized tissues that transport water and nutrients and do not produce seeds.

Lack true roots, stem and leaves.

24

Seedless Vascular Plants

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Have vascular tissue that carry water and nutrients throughout the plant, but lack seeds.

Have stems, roots and leaves.

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Vascular Tissue

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Specialized tissue in plants that carry water and nutrients throughout plants.

Water travels through Xylem

Nutrients travel through Phloem

26

Gymnosperms

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"Naked Seed'

Vascular plants that produce seeds but does not produce flowers or fruit. Seeds are contained in cones.

27

Angiosperms

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Vascular plants that produce seeds, flowers, and fruits.