Ch 9 Vocabulary

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1

Achievement tests

Tests that gauge a person's mastery and knowledge of various subjects.

2

Aptitude tests

Psychological tests used to assess talent for specific types of mental ability.

3

Construct validity

The extent to which there is evidence that a test measures a particular hypothetical construct.

4

Content validity

The degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain it's supposed to cover.

5

Convergent thinking

Narrowing down a list of alternatives to converge on a single correct answer.

6

Correlation coefficient

A numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables.

7

Creativity

The generation of ideas that are original, novel, and useful.

8

Criterion-related validity

Test validity that is estimated by correlating subjects' scores on a test with their scores on an independent criterion (another measure) of the trait assessed by the test.

9

Deviation IQ scores

Scores that locate subjects precisely within the normal distribution, using the standard deviation as the unit of measurement.

10

Divergent thinking

Trying to expand the range of alternatives by generating many possible solutions.

11

Emotional intelligence

The ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion.

12

Heritability ratio

An estimate of the proportion of trait variability in a population that is determined by variations in genetic inheritance.

13

Intelligence quotient (IQ)

A child's mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100.

14

Intelligence tests

Psychological tests that measure general mental ability.

15

Mental age

In intelligence testing, a score that indicates that a child displays the mental ability typical of a child of that chronological (actual) age.

16

Mental retardation

Subnormal general mental ability accompanied by deficiencies in everyday living skills originating prior to age 18.

17

Normal distribution

A symmetric, bell-shaped curve that represents the pattern in which many characteristics are dispersed in the population.

18

Percentile score

A figure that indicates the percentage of people who score below the score one has obtained.

19

Personality tests

Psychological tests that measure various aspects of personality, including motives, interests, values, and attitudes.

20

Psychological test

A standardized measure of a sample of a person's behavior.

21

Reaction range

Genetically determined limits on IQ or other traits.

22

Reification

Giving an abstract concept a name and then treating it as though it were a concrete, tangible object.

23

Reliability

The measurement consistency of a test (or of other kinds of measurement techniques).

24

Standardization

The uniform procedures used in the administration and scoring of a test.

25

Test norms

Standards that provide information about where a score on a psychological test ranks in relation to other scores on that test.

26

Validity

The ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure.