anatomy and pysiology reproduction

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1

meiosis

the cell division process, that produces, gametes--sperm or egg cells

2

diploid

meiosis, one cell with 46 for humans divides twice

3

haploid

half the usual number for humans 23

4

Spermatogenesis

is the process of meiosis as it takes place in the testes, the site of sperm production.

5

Seminiferous tubules

within each testis are--that contain spermatogonia, which are stem cells that generate sperm.

6

spermatogonium

it divides by mitosis to form two cells, one of which will remain in place as a stem cell, while the other differentiates specializes to become a primary spermatocyte that will undergo meiosis.

7

hypothalamus

secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.

8

FSH

initiates sperm production, and testosterone, secreted by the testes when stimulated by LH, promotes the maturation of sperm.

9

Inhibin

produced by the testes, decrease the secretion of FSH

10

oogenesis

process of meiosis for egg cell formation; it begins in the ovaries and is also regulated by hormones.

11

menopause

when the ovaries atrophy and no longer respond to pituitary hormones

12

testes

are located in the scrotum, a sac of skin between the upper thighs.

13

96% temperature

within the scrotum is about slightly lower than body temp, which is necessary for the production of viable sperm.

14

cryptorchidism

is the condition in which the testes fail to descend, and the result is sterility unless the testes are surgically placed in the scrotum.

15

acrosome

on the tip of the head which is similar to a lysosome and contains enzymes to digest the membrane of an egg cell.

16

spermatic cord

this canal is an opening in the abdominal wall for the--a connective tissue sheath that contains the ductus deferens, testicular blood vessels, and nerves.

17

ejaculatory ducts

receives sperm from the ductus deferens and secretion of the seminal vesicle on its own side.

18

seminal vessicles

posterior to the urinary bladder, their secretion contains fructose to provide an energy source for sperm and is alkaline to enhance sperm motility.

19

prostate gland

a muscular gland just below the urinary bladder.

20

bulbourethral glands

also called cowper's glands are about the size of peas and are located below the prostate gland: they empty into the urethra.

21

urethra

the last part of the ducts through which semen travels, and it longest portion is enclosed within the penis.

22

ovaries

these are a pair of oval structures about 1.5 inches long on either side of the uterus in the pelvic cavity.

23

ovarian ligament

this extends from the medial side of an ovary to the uterine wall.

24

zygote

one cell, a fertilized egg, which develops into an individual human being consisting of billions of cells.

25

embryo

the developing human individual from the time of implantation until the eighth week of gestation.

26

amniotic fluid

this fluid provides a cushion for the fetus against mechanical injury as the mother moves.

27

ectoderm

epidermis; hair and nail follicles; sweat glands, nervous system; pituitary gland; adrenal medulla, lens and cornea; internal ear, mucosa of oral and nasal cavities; salivary glands.

28

mesoderm

dermis; bone and cartilage, skeletal muscles; cardiac muscles; most smooth muscle, kidneys and adrenal cortex bone marrow and blood; lymphatic tissue; lining of blood vessels.

29

endoderm

mucosa of esophagus, stomach, and intestines, epithelium of respiratory tract, including lungs, liver and mucosa of gallbladder thyroid gland; pancreas

30

human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

the first hormone secreted by the placenta, which produced by the chorion of the early embryo.

31

first stage of labor

dilation of the cervix, this last about 8 to 12 hours and your water breaks

32

Second stage of labor

delivery of the infant

33

third stage of labor

delivery of the placenta (afterbirth) within ten minutes of the birth of the baby.

34

homozygous

if two alleles are the same and is--for that trait.

35

sickle cell anemia

the most genetic disease among people of African ancestry.

36

blastocyst

the embryonic stage that becomes implanted in the uterus is the:

37

ectoderm

the most superficial parts of the body develop from this primary layer:

38

protein

a gene is the genetic code for one:

39

umbilical vein

the fetal vessel that carries oxygen and nutrient from the placenta to the fetus is the:

40

placenta

both fetal and maternal tissues contribute to the formation of the:

41

gestation

40 weeks, the embryo-fetus is protected and nourished in the uterus of the mother.

42

zygote

a human begins life as one cell, a fertilized egg called a

43

capacitation

metabolic change

44

xx

women have the chromosomes

45

xy

men have the chromosomes

46

morula

a solid sphere of cells

47

blastocyst

mitosis proceeds and the sphere becomes hollow and is called

48

trophoblast

a fluid-filled blastocyst consist of an outer layer of cells called the--an an inner cell mass that contains the potential embryo

49

semen

composed of sperm and secretion of seminal vessel, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands.

50

cervix

narrow lower end of the uterus, which opens into the vagina

51

fundus

upper portion layer central portion

52

serosa or epimetrium

outer layer is a fold of the peritoneum

53

myometrium

smooth muscle layer, contract for labor

54

endometrium

lining, forms the maternal parts of placenta

55

basilar layer

adjacent to the myometrium, is vascular but very thin

permeant layer

56

functional layer

lost during menstral cycle.

57

vagina

receive sperm, from penis, exit for mentral blood flow, birth canal at end of pregnancy

58

foramen ovale

breathing promotes greater pulmonary circulation, and the increased amount of blood returning to the left atrium closes the flap.

59

ductus venosus

no longer receives blood from the umbilical vein and begins to constrict within a few minutes after birth.