Human anatomy and physiology Test 2 notes

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1

Which layer of the epidermis is responsible for replacing old epidermal cells?

Stratum basale

2

What is the function of melatonin

Protects DNA in the nucleus of epidermal cell from UV rays from the sun

3

This layer of the epidermis makes up 3/4 of the epidermis?

Stratum Corneum

4

Which membrane lines spaces between bones, as well as cushion and protects the ends of bones?

Synovial membrane

5

Which type of membrane is a moist membrane that lines close body cavities?

Serous membranes

6

What is the deepest layer of the dermis?

reticular layer

7

What would be the 1st process of tissue repair involved in the normal healing of a superficial wound?

capillaries leak fluid into tissues, inflammation occurs, and a clot forms

8

What are true sweat gland called?

eccrine glands

9

Hair and skin are lubricated with oil secreted from which type of gland?

Sebaceous gland

10

What bone structure lines the medullary cavity of a long bone?

endosteum

11

Cells that secrete extracellular matrix of bone, or cells that make bone tissue are called what?

osteoblasts

12

Bones that are cube shaped are classified as what?

short bones

13

What is the structural unit of compact bone?

osteocyte or osteon

14

What does the central canal that run through the middle of each osteon contain?

blood vessels and nerves

15

What do cranial bone (flat bones) develop in?

fibrous membranes

16

Longitudinal bone growth in infancy and childhood occurs where?

in epihyseal plate

17

When a bone fractures occurs, the last phase in the process of repair is?

bone remodeling

18

The axial skeleton contain what structure?

skull, vertebral colummn, ribs, and sternum

19

Immovable joints in the skull are called _________.

Synarthroses

20

Which classification of joints have the largest range of motion?

Diarthroses

21

Articulation with only slight amount of movements are known as ________________.

amphiarthrosis

22

When the arm or leg moves away from the midline of the body, the movement is called ___________.

abduction

23

Muscle fibers containing striations with brancing ends which are involuntarily controlled are called ________________.

cardiac muscles

24

Muscle attachments to the skeleton on the nonmoving bone are called ____________.

origins

25

The functional characteristic which is the ability of of a muscle cell to respond to astimulus is called _____________________.

excitability

26

In an isotonic muscle contraction, what happens to the muscle length?

It shortens

27

The structural and functional unit of a skeletal muscle is a ___________.

sacromere

28

When a muscle produce ATP and lactic acid, the process used to make the ATP is called _________.

anaerobic mechanism

29

Which pathway to make ATP is the fastest way to produce ATP for muscle activity?

direct phosphorylation

30

Cylinder shaped muscles with many nuclei that are striated and are voluntarily controlled are known as ______________ muscles.

skeletal

31

The functional characteristic which is the able of the muscle to shorten causing movementis called ________________.

contractility

32

Which connective tissue fiber cover the entire muscle cell?

epimysium

33

Which connective tissue fiber cover the fascicle (a bundle of muscle cells)?

perimysium

34

Which connective tissue fiber cover the muscle fiber (one muscle cell)?

endomysium

35

When a bone fractures occurs, the first phase in the process of repair is?

Hematoma formation

36

A fluid filled joint such as the shoulder joint or knee is known as a(n)___________ joint.

synovial

37

What skin layer in only found in thick skin?

stratum lucidum

38

Bones that are longer than they are wide are classified as what?

long bones

39

The yellow to orange pigment found in the stratum corneum is known as ____________.

carotene

40

The two types of body membranes

Epithelial membrane and connective tissue

41

What are 5 layers of the epidermis

strata,stratum basale, spinosum,granulosum,lucidum,corneum

42

what are the different pigments

Melanin,carotene,hemoglobin

43

what does melanin contribute

yellow to black made by melanocytes,melanin production

44

what does Carotene contribute

yellow to orange deposits in stratum corneium

45

what does hemoglobin contribute

carries oxygen bright red, without oxygen blue

46

What are the funtions of the skin

Cutaneous glands,hair,hair follicles and nails

47

What is the process of tissue repair

regeneration and fibrosis

48

what is regeneration and fibrosis

regeneration is replacement of destroyed tissue cells fibrosis repairs connective tissue

49

What is the process of tissue repair

capillariers leak fluid into tissue inflammation occurs, a clot forms granulation tissue forms in dermis new capillaries grow,collagen and fibers are made(fibrosis) epidermis repairs producing new cells

50

What are the body appendages of the skin

hair,hair follicles,nails and cutaneous glands

51

what is hair function

hair is dead cells,rapid dividing epithelial cells produce hair shaft pushing older cells upwards

52

what is sweat glands function

helps regulate body tempature made of water and salt

53

what does cutaneous glands do?

Cutaneous glands are exocrine glands that release their secretion to the skin surface via ducts. they are sebaceous glands and sweat glands.

54

What is the function of the skeletal system

support,protection,movement, storage,blood cell formation

55

What is the gross anatomy of long bone

Diaphysis,epiphysis,medullary bone cavity, ephiphyseal plate,epiphyseal line, periosteum, endosteum,articular cartlidge

56

What is diaphysis?

shaft of the long bone

57

What is epiphysis?

end of the long bone

58

What is the epiphyseal line?

line in the growth plate

59

What is the epiphyseal plate

growth plate made of cartlidge

60

what is periosteum?

outter covering of the bone

61

What is endosteum?

lines in the medullary cavity

62

What is articular cartlidge?

provides a smooth slippery surface that decreases friction at joint surface

63

What is osteoblasts?

bone forming cells secrete matrix of bone

64

What is osteocytes?

mature bone cells maintain matrix of bone

65

What is osteoclasts?

bone destroying cells breaks down matrix of bone and release calcium to bone

66

name the different shapes of bones

long bone,short bone,irregular bone,flat bone

67

What is short bones?

cube shaped

68

What is long bones

longer than they are wide

69

What is flat bone?

thin flattened or curved

70

What is irregular bone

all other bones such as vertebraes

71

What is compositions of bone organ

Osteon,Osteocyte,Lamellae,lacuna, central canals

72

What are the two types of bones

compact and spongy

73

what are the two types of ossification

intramembraneous and endochondral

74

what is longitudinal bone growth and where does it take place

epiphyseal growth plate and it takes place in the long bone.

75

What is the major structure of a skeleton

bones, ligaments and cartlige

76

how a bone heals after a fracture

hemotoma formation, fibrocartilaginous callus forms bony callus forms,bone modeling occurs

77

What is axial?

runs along the bodys midline includes the skull,hyoid, auditory,ossicles,ribs,sternum and verabral column

78

what is the appendicular skeleton

upper and lower limbs, pelvic girdle and pectoral shoulder girdle

79

what are the 3 different types of joints

cartilaginous,fibrous,synovial

80

What are the different funtions of muscles

contracting and shorting

81

what is the difference between isotonic and isometric

isotonic means same tone or tension isometric means tension keeps increasing

82

What is orgin

attachement of a muscle that remains fixed during muscular contractions

83

What is insertion?

a moveable attachment to the muscle as opposed to its orgin

84

What is fixators

muscles acting to immobilize a joint or a bone fixes its orgin

85

What is synergist

muscle cooperating with another muscle or muscle group to produce a desired movement

86

What are the structures of a muscle

myofibrils, myofilaments,sarcolemma,actin,myosin

87

what is myofibrils

contractile organelles found in the cytoplasm of muscle cells

88

what are myofilaments

filaments composing the myofibrils actin and myosin

89

What is sarcolemma?

oval nuclei just beneath the plasma membrane

90

What is actin?

thin filaments composed of contractile protein

91

What is myosin?

one of the principal contractile proteins found in the muscle

92

Impulses travels down the nerves cell when the impulse reaches the end of the nerve cell, acetylcholine crosses the synapse and attaches to the receptors on the sarcolemma what happens next

1) the electrical impulse is produced on the sarcolemma, 2) the electrical impulse travels down the sarcolemma and the T tubules. 3) Sacroplasmic Reticulum releases calcium into the cell 4) Calcium binds to the appropriate site on actin and exposes the myosin binding sites, 5) myosin heads bind to actin, 6) the power stroke occurs and actin filaments are pulled toward the center of the sarcomere, 7) ATP attaches to the myosin,causing myosin to break apart from actin. 8) ATP is broken down into ADP and PI. The energy released is used to recock the myosin heads. Nineth) Calcium is pumped back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

93

What are the Meathods of making ATP

Direct Phosphorylation, Anaerobic mechanism and Aerobic mechanism

94

What is Direct phosphorylation

CP + ADP+ATP+C = Creatine Phosphate 1 ATP made every 15 seconds but burns up fast

95

What is Anaerobic Mechanism

glycogen> glucose>lactic>+ATP acid makes 2 ATP every 60 seconds. Lactic makes the muscles sore

96

What is Aerobic Mechanism

Glucose and oxygen carbon dioxide and water makes 36 ATP, but takes hours to make from food.

97

What are some of the advantage of Direct Phosphorylation

Makes faster and dissipate pretty quickly

98

what is the advantage of Anaerobic Mechanism

makes quick but causes sore muscles

99

What is the advantage of Aerobic mechanism

Makes more ATP but takes hours to make.