Human anatomy and physiology Test 2 notes
Which layer of the epidermis is responsible for replacing old epidermal cells?
What is the function of melatonin
Protects DNA in the nucleus of epidermal cell from UV rays from the sun
This layer of the epidermis makes up 3/4 of the epidermis?
Which membrane lines spaces between bones, as well as cushion and protects the ends of bones?
Which type of membrane is a moist membrane that lines close body cavities?
What is the deepest layer of the dermis?
What would be the 1st process of tissue repair involved in the normal healing of a superficial wound?
capillaries leak fluid into tissues, inflammation occurs, and a clot forms
What are true sweat gland called?
Hair and skin are lubricated with oil secreted from which type of gland?
What bone structure lines the medullary cavity of a long bone?
Cells that secrete extracellular matrix of bone, or cells that make bone tissue are called what?
Bones that are cube shaped are classified as what?
What is the structural unit of compact bone?
osteocyte or osteon
What does the central canal that run through the middle of each osteon contain?
blood vessels and nerves
What do cranial bone (flat bones) develop in?
Longitudinal bone growth in infancy and childhood occurs where?
in epihyseal plate
When a bone fractures occurs, the last phase in the process of repair is?
The axial skeleton contain what structure?
skull, vertebral colummn, ribs, and sternum
Immovable joints in the skull are called _________.
Which classification of joints have the largest range of motion?
Articulation with only slight amount of movements are known as ________________.
When the arm or leg moves away from the midline of the body, the movement is called ___________.
Muscle fibers containing striations with brancing ends which are involuntarily controlled are called ________________.
Muscle attachments to the skeleton on the nonmoving bone are called ____________.
The functional characteristic which is the ability of of a muscle cell to respond to astimulus is called _____________________.
In an isotonic muscle contraction, what happens to the muscle length?
The structural and functional unit of a skeletal muscle is a ___________.
When a muscle produce ATP and lactic acid, the process used to make the ATP is called _________.
Which pathway to make ATP is the fastest way to produce ATP for muscle activity?
Cylinder shaped muscles with many nuclei that are striated and are voluntarily controlled are known as ______________ muscles.
The functional characteristic which is the able of the muscle to shorten causing movementis called ________________.
Which connective tissue fiber cover the entire muscle cell?
Which connective tissue fiber cover the fascicle (a bundle of muscle cells)?
Which connective tissue fiber cover the muscle fiber (one muscle cell)?
When a bone fractures occurs, the first phase in the process of repair is?
A fluid filled joint such as the shoulder joint or knee is known as a(n)___________ joint.
What skin layer in only found in thick skin?
Bones that are longer than they are wide are classified as what?
The yellow to orange pigment found in the stratum corneum is known as ____________.
The two types of body membranes
Epithelial membrane and connective tissue
What are 5 layers of the epidermis
strata,stratum basale, spinosum,granulosum,lucidum,corneum
what are the different pigments
what does melanin contribute
yellow to black made by melanocytes,melanin production
what does Carotene contribute
yellow to orange deposits in stratum corneium
what does hemoglobin contribute
carries oxygen bright red, without oxygen blue
What are the funtions of the skin
Cutaneous glands,hair,hair follicles and nails
What is the process of tissue repair
regeneration and fibrosis
what is regeneration and fibrosis
regeneration is replacement of destroyed tissue cells fibrosis repairs connective tissue
What is the process of tissue repair
capillariers leak fluid into tissue inflammation occurs, a clot forms granulation tissue forms in dermis new capillaries grow,collagen and fibers are made(fibrosis) epidermis repairs producing new cells
What are the body appendages of the skin
hair,hair follicles,nails and cutaneous glands
what is hair function
hair is dead cells,rapid dividing epithelial cells produce hair shaft pushing older cells upwards
what is sweat glands function
helps regulate body tempature made of water and salt
what does cutaneous glands do?
Cutaneous glands are exocrine glands that release their secretion to the skin surface via ducts. they are sebaceous glands and sweat glands.
What is the function of the skeletal system
support,protection,movement, storage,blood cell formation
What is the gross anatomy of long bone
Diaphysis,epiphysis,medullary bone cavity, ephiphyseal plate,epiphyseal line, periosteum, endosteum,articular cartlidge
What is diaphysis?
shaft of the long bone
What is epiphysis?
end of the long bone
What is the epiphyseal line?
line in the growth plate
What is the epiphyseal plate
growth plate made of cartlidge
what is periosteum?
outter covering of the bone
What is endosteum?
lines in the medullary cavity
What is articular cartlidge?
provides a smooth slippery surface that decreases friction at joint surface
What is osteoblasts?
bone forming cells secrete matrix of bone
What is osteocytes?
mature bone cells maintain matrix of bone
What is osteoclasts?
bone destroying cells breaks down matrix of bone and release calcium to bone
name the different shapes of bones
long bone,short bone,irregular bone,flat bone
What is short bones?
What is long bones
longer than they are wide
What is flat bone?
thin flattened or curved
What is irregular bone
all other bones such as vertebraes
What is compositions of bone organ
Osteon,Osteocyte,Lamellae,lacuna, central canals
What are the two types of bones
compact and spongy
what are the two types of ossification
intramembraneous and endochondral
what is longitudinal bone growth and where does it take place
epiphyseal growth plate and it takes place in the long bone.
What is the major structure of a skeleton
bones, ligaments and cartlige
how a bone heals after a fracture
hemotoma formation, fibrocartilaginous callus forms bony callus forms,bone modeling occurs
What is axial?
runs along the bodys midline includes the skull,hyoid, auditory,ossicles,ribs,sternum and verabral column
what is the appendicular skeleton
upper and lower limbs, pelvic girdle and pectoral shoulder girdle
what are the 3 different types of joints
What are the different funtions of muscles
contracting and shorting
what is the difference between isotonic and isometric
isotonic means same tone or tension isometric means tension keeps increasing
What is orgin
attachement of a muscle that remains fixed during muscular contractions
What is insertion?
a moveable attachment to the muscle as opposed to its orgin
What is fixators
muscles acting to immobilize a joint or a bone fixes its orgin
What is synergist
muscle cooperating with another muscle or muscle group to produce a desired movement
What are the structures of a muscle
what is myofibrils
contractile organelles found in the cytoplasm of muscle cells
what are myofilaments
filaments composing the myofibrils actin and myosin
What is sarcolemma?
oval nuclei just beneath the plasma membrane
What is actin?
thin filaments composed of contractile protein
What is myosin?
one of the principal contractile proteins found in the muscle
Impulses travels down the nerves cell when the impulse reaches the end of the nerve cell, acetylcholine crosses the synapse and attaches to the receptors on the sarcolemma what happens next
1) the electrical impulse is produced on the sarcolemma, 2) the electrical impulse travels down the sarcolemma and the T tubules. 3) Sacroplasmic Reticulum releases calcium into the cell 4) Calcium binds to the appropriate site on actin and exposes the myosin binding sites, 5) myosin heads bind to actin, 6) the power stroke occurs and actin filaments are pulled toward the center of the sarcomere, 7) ATP attaches to the myosin,causing myosin to break apart from actin. 8) ATP is broken down into ADP and PI. The energy released is used to recock the myosin heads. Nineth) Calcium is pumped back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
What are the Meathods of making ATP
Direct Phosphorylation, Anaerobic mechanism and Aerobic mechanism
What is Direct phosphorylation
CP + ADP+ATP+C = Creatine Phosphate 1 ATP made every 15 seconds but burns up fast
What is Anaerobic Mechanism
glycogen> glucose>lactic>+ATP acid makes 2 ATP every 60 seconds. Lactic makes the muscles sore
What is Aerobic Mechanism
Glucose and oxygen carbon dioxide and water makes 36 ATP, but takes hours to make from food.
What are some of the advantage of Direct Phosphorylation
Makes faster and dissipate pretty quickly
what is the advantage of Anaerobic Mechanism
makes quick but causes sore muscles
What is the advantage of Aerobic mechanism
Makes more ATP but takes hours to make.