Chapter 16 - Endocrine glands (part 2)

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1

What hormone is produced by the pineal gland?

melatonin

2

What is the effect of melatonin?

Affects reproductive development and daily physiologic cycles

3

Where is growth hormone produced?

pituitary gland

4

What is the effect of growth hormone?

controls growth of bones and muscles

5

Where is anti-diuretic hormone produced?

pituitary gland

6

What is the effect of anti-diuretic hormone?

increases reabsorption of water in kidneys

7

Where are gonadotrophans produced?

pituitary gland

8

What is the effect of gonadotrophans?

controls development of ovaries and testes

9

What hormone does the thyroid gland produce?

thyrosine

10

What is the effect of thyrosine?

controls rate of metabolism, controls the rate that glucose is used up in respiration, and promotes growth

11

What hormone does the adrenal gland produce?

adrenaline

12

What is the effect of adrenaline?

prepares the body for emergencies, increases heart rate/breathing, raises blood sugar levels so more glucose is available for respiration, diverts blood from gut to limbs

13

Where is insulin produced?

pancreas

14

What is the effect of insulin?

converts excess glucose into glycogen in the liver

15

Where is glucagon produced?

pancreas

16

What is the effect of glucagon?

converts glycogen back to glucose in the liver

17

Where is estrogen produced?

ovaries

18

What is the effect of estrogen?

controls ovulation and secondary sexual characteristics

19

Where is progesterone produced?

ovaries

20

What is the effect of progesterone?

prepares the uterus lining for receiving an embryo

21

What hormone is produced in the testes?

testosterone

22

What is the effect of testosterone?

controls sperm production and secondary sexual characteristics

23

What hormone is produced in the thymus?

thymosin

24

What is the effect of thymosin?

promotes production and maturation of white blood cells

25

Which endocrine gland is part of the brain that regulates ANS, emotions, feeding/satiety, thirst, body temperature, etc.

hypothalmus

26

Which endocrine gland produces 'releasing' hormones that regulate AP?

anterior pituitary

27

What is released by the anterior pituitary?

proteins - TSH, ACTH, FSH, LG; growth hormone; prolactin-releasing hormone

28

All releasing hormones come from the?

anterior pituitary

29

Tropins and stimulating hormones come from the?

anterior pituitary

30

Hyper-secretion of growth hormone in youth produces?

giantism

31

Hypo-secretion of growth hormone in childhood produces?

pituitary dwarfism

32

Hyper-secretion of growth hormone in adults produces?

acromegaly (bones can't grow any longer so they grow wider)

33

Posterior pituitary: hypothalmic cell bodies synthesize what?

oxytocin and ADH

34

Posterior pituitary: what stimulates smooth muscle contraction of the uterus and mammary glands?

oxytocin

35

Posterior pituitary: What stimulates water reabsorption in collecting ducts, stimulates vasoconstriction (constriction of blood vessels impacting blood pressure)

antidiuretic hormone

36

A lack of this leads to diabetes insipidus

anti-diuretic hormone

37

Anterior pituitary: what is the target organ for FSH?

ovaries and testes

38

What is the effect of FSH?

in females, growth of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogen

in males, sperm production

39

Anterior pituitary: what are the target organs of LH?

ovaries and testes

40

What are the effects of LH?

in females, ovulation and maintenance of corpus luteum

in males, testosterone secretion

41

Anterior pituitary: what is the target organ of TSH?

thyroid gland

42

What is the effect of TSH?

growth of thyroid, secretion of hormones

43

Anterior pituitary: what is the target organ of ACTH?

adrenal cortex

44

What is the effect of ACTH?

growth of adrenal cortex, secretion of gluccorticoids

45

Anterior pituitary: what is the target organ of prolactin?

mammary glands and testes

46

What is the effect of prolactin?

in females, milk synthesis

in males, increased LH sensitivity and testosterone secretion

47

Anterior pituitary: what is the target organ of growth hormone?

liver

48

What is the effect of growth hormone?

somatomedin secretion, widespread tissue growth

49

Posterior pituitary: what is the target organ of ADH (anti-diuretic hormone)?

kidneys

50

What is the effect of ADH?

water retention

51

Posterior pituitary: What is the target organ of oxytocin?

uterus, mammary glands

52

What is the effect of oxytocin?

labor contractions, milk release, possibly involved in sperm ejaculation, sperm transport, and sexual affection

53

Where is the thyroid gland located?

inferior to larynx, anterior and lateral to trachea

54

The thyroid gland is composed of follicle cells that produce what?

thyroglobulin (protein)

55

Parafollicular / C cells in the thyroid gland produce what?

calcitonin

56

What does calcitonin do?

decreases blood calcium by depositing it in bones

57

Hypothyroidism results in what condition in adults?

myxedema

58

Hypothyroidism results in what condition in children?

cretinism

59

Low levels of iodine result in?

goiters

60

Hyperthyroidism results in?

Graves disease

61

What are the four small glands embedded in the posterior of the thyroid?

parathyroid glands

62

What does parathyroid hormone (PTH) do?

stimulates osteoclasts to free calcium from bones, stimulates calcium uptake from intestines and kidneys

63

In severe para-thyroidism, what is the result?

massive bone destruction

64

If blood calcium falls too low and neurons become overactive, what is the result?

tetany

65

Where are the adrenal glands located?

on top of each kidney

66

What is the exterior part of the adrenal gland called?

cortex

67

What is the interior part of the adrenal gland called?

medulla

68

The adrenal cortex is actively stimulated by which hormone?

ACTH

69

The adrenal cortex controls prolonged responses by secreting what?

corticosteroids

70

Adrenal cortex: What are mineralcorticoids?

aldosterone --> regulates salt and water balance

71

Adrenal cortex: what are glucocorticoids?

cortisol ---> regulates glucose metabolism and the immune system

72

Adrenal cortex: what are the gonadocorticoids?

androgens and estrogens

73

Hyper-secretion in the adrenal cortex leads to?

Cushing's Disease (ACTH-releasing tumors or side effects of corticoid drugs)

74

Hypo-secretion in the adrenal cortex leads to?

Addison's Disease (deficits in glucocorticoids and mineralcorticoids)

75

What does the adrenal medulla do?

Mediates short-term responses by secreting catecholamine hormones

76

What is produced by the adrenal cortex?

Epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (fight or flight)

77

What are the effects of mineralcorticoids?

retention of sodium ions and water by kidneys; increase blood volume and blood pressure

78

What are the effects of glucocorticoids?

proteins and fats broken down and converted to glucose, leading to increased blood glucose; immune system may be suppressed (allergies)

79

What endocrine gland consists of two major types of secretory tissue which reflects its dual function?

pancreas

80

What are the two tissues in the pancreas?

exocrine gland and endocrine gland

81

Which gland in the pancreas secretes digestive juices and is localized in the acinar cells?

exocrine gland

82

Which gland in the pancreas releases hormones and is localized in the islet cells (produces insulin)?

endocrine gland

83

What are the control centers for blood glucose?

pancreatic islets

84

In the pancreatic islets, insulin comes from?

beta cells

85

In the pancreatic islets, glucagon comes from?

alpha cells

86

What hormone in the pancreas promotes food storage?

insulin

87

What hormone in the pancreas depletes food storage?

glucagon

88

What is the main function of the thymus?

to mature lymphocytes to T lymphocytes