Chapter 16 - Endocrine glands (part 2)
What hormone is produced by the pineal gland?
What is the effect of melatonin?
Affects reproductive development and daily physiologic cycles
Where is growth hormone produced?
What is the effect of growth hormone?
controls growth of bones and muscles
Where is anti-diuretic hormone produced?
What is the effect of anti-diuretic hormone?
increases reabsorption of water in kidneys
Where are gonadotrophans produced?
What is the effect of gonadotrophans?
controls development of ovaries and testes
What hormone does the thyroid gland produce?
What is the effect of thyrosine?
controls rate of metabolism, controls the rate that glucose is used up in respiration, and promotes growth
What hormone does the adrenal gland produce?
What is the effect of adrenaline?
prepares the body for emergencies, increases heart rate/breathing, raises blood sugar levels so more glucose is available for respiration, diverts blood from gut to limbs
Where is insulin produced?
What is the effect of insulin?
converts excess glucose into glycogen in the liver
Where is glucagon produced?
What is the effect of glucagon?
converts glycogen back to glucose in the liver
Where is estrogen produced?
What is the effect of estrogen?
controls ovulation and secondary sexual characteristics
Where is progesterone produced?
What is the effect of progesterone?
prepares the uterus lining for receiving an embryo
What hormone is produced in the testes?
What is the effect of testosterone?
controls sperm production and secondary sexual characteristics
What hormone is produced in the thymus?
What is the effect of thymosin?
promotes production and maturation of white blood cells
Which endocrine gland is part of the brain that regulates ANS, emotions, feeding/satiety, thirst, body temperature, etc.
Which endocrine gland produces 'releasing' hormones that regulate AP?
What is released by the anterior pituitary?
proteins - TSH, ACTH, FSH, LG; growth hormone; prolactin-releasing hormone
All releasing hormones come from the?
Tropins and stimulating hormones come from the?
Hyper-secretion of growth hormone in youth produces?
Hypo-secretion of growth hormone in childhood produces?
Hyper-secretion of growth hormone in adults produces?
acromegaly (bones can't grow any longer so they grow wider)
Posterior pituitary: hypothalmic cell bodies synthesize what?
oxytocin and ADH
Posterior pituitary: what stimulates smooth muscle contraction of the uterus and mammary glands?
Posterior pituitary: What stimulates water reabsorption in collecting ducts, stimulates vasoconstriction (constriction of blood vessels impacting blood pressure)
A lack of this leads to diabetes insipidus
Anterior pituitary: what is the target organ for FSH?
ovaries and testes
What is the effect of FSH?
in females, growth of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogen
in males, sperm production
Anterior pituitary: what are the target organs of LH?
ovaries and testes
What are the effects of LH?
in females, ovulation and maintenance of corpus luteum
in males, testosterone secretion
Anterior pituitary: what is the target organ of TSH?
What is the effect of TSH?
growth of thyroid, secretion of hormones
Anterior pituitary: what is the target organ of ACTH?
What is the effect of ACTH?
growth of adrenal cortex, secretion of gluccorticoids
Anterior pituitary: what is the target organ of prolactin?
mammary glands and testes
What is the effect of prolactin?
in females, milk synthesis
in males, increased LH sensitivity and testosterone secretion
Anterior pituitary: what is the target organ of growth hormone?
What is the effect of growth hormone?
somatomedin secretion, widespread tissue growth
Posterior pituitary: what is the target organ of ADH (anti-diuretic hormone)?
What is the effect of ADH?
Posterior pituitary: What is the target organ of oxytocin?
uterus, mammary glands
What is the effect of oxytocin?
labor contractions, milk release, possibly involved in sperm ejaculation, sperm transport, and sexual affection
Where is the thyroid gland located?
inferior to larynx, anterior and lateral to trachea
The thyroid gland is composed of follicle cells that produce what?
Parafollicular / C cells in the thyroid gland produce what?
What does calcitonin do?
decreases blood calcium by depositing it in bones
Hypothyroidism results in what condition in adults?
Hypothyroidism results in what condition in children?
Low levels of iodine result in?
Hyperthyroidism results in?
What are the four small glands embedded in the posterior of the thyroid?
What does parathyroid hormone (PTH) do?
stimulates osteoclasts to free calcium from bones, stimulates calcium uptake from intestines and kidneys
In severe para-thyroidism, what is the result?
massive bone destruction
If blood calcium falls too low and neurons become overactive, what is the result?
Where are the adrenal glands located?
on top of each kidney
What is the exterior part of the adrenal gland called?
What is the interior part of the adrenal gland called?
The adrenal cortex is actively stimulated by which hormone?
The adrenal cortex controls prolonged responses by secreting what?
Adrenal cortex: What are mineralcorticoids?
aldosterone --> regulates salt and water balance
Adrenal cortex: what are glucocorticoids?
cortisol ---> regulates glucose metabolism and the immune system
Adrenal cortex: what are the gonadocorticoids?
androgens and estrogens
Hyper-secretion in the adrenal cortex leads to?
Cushing's Disease (ACTH-releasing tumors or side effects of corticoid drugs)
Hypo-secretion in the adrenal cortex leads to?
Addison's Disease (deficits in glucocorticoids and mineralcorticoids)
What does the adrenal medulla do?
Mediates short-term responses by secreting catecholamine hormones
What is produced by the adrenal cortex?
Epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (fight or flight)
What are the effects of mineralcorticoids?
retention of sodium ions and water by kidneys; increase blood volume and blood pressure
What are the effects of glucocorticoids?
proteins and fats broken down and converted to glucose, leading to increased blood glucose; immune system may be suppressed (allergies)
What endocrine gland consists of two major types of secretory tissue which reflects its dual function?
What are the two tissues in the pancreas?
exocrine gland and endocrine gland
Which gland in the pancreas secretes digestive juices and is localized in the acinar cells?
Which gland in the pancreas releases hormones and is localized in the islet cells (produces insulin)?
What are the control centers for blood glucose?
In the pancreatic islets, insulin comes from?
In the pancreatic islets, glucagon comes from?
What hormone in the pancreas promotes food storage?
What hormone in the pancreas depletes food storage?
What is the main function of the thymus?
to mature lymphocytes to T lymphocytes