Which of the following is NOT a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?
production of rennin
Chyme is created in the
*A client with appendicitis is scheduled for an appendectomy. The nurse providing preoperative care for the client understands that the appendix is attached to the
secrete enzymes that kill bacteria.
*A nurse who is caring for an older client is aware that the client is at risk for prolonged medication effects as a result of the normal aging process. The nurse would be even more concerned with this effect if the client had a history of disease of the
Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include
*A client with a diagnosis of stomach ulcers due to gastric hyperacidity asks the nurse why the acid hasn’t caused an ulcer in the small intestine as well. The nurse responds that the pH of the intestinal contents is raised by bicarbonate, which is present in
*A nurse is caring for a hospitalized client diagnosed with pancreatitis. The nurse anticipates that the enzyme _____ will remain normal in the client.
You have just eaten french fries, buttered toast, ice cream, and whole milk. Which of the following glands would be active in helping you to digest this food?
Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach. These secretions are stimulated by the presence of
protein and peptide fragments.
There are some 20 known pathogens found in the large intestine; our ________ antibody-mediated response restricts them from going beyond the mucosa and causing problems.
*A nurse is providing a simple overview of the anatomy of the liver and gallbladder for a client hospitalized with biliary obstruction. The nurse explains that normally the liver stores bile in the gallbladder, which is connected to the liver’s biliary system by the
*A nurse is giving dietary instructions to a client who has a new colostomy. The nurse encourages the client to eat foods representing which of the following diets for the first 4 to 6 weeks postoperatively? (Hint: A colostomy is a surgical procedure that connects part of the colon to the anterior abdominal wall. After a colostomy, the patient’s feces leave the body through the opening made in the abdomen.)
low residue diet
Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?
When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called
*A client with gastric hypersecretion is scheduled for surgery. The nurse teaches the client that the procedure will lesson the stomach’s production of acid because it involves severing part of the
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the large intestine?
It lies deep to the pancreas and stomach
Which of the following are types of papillae on the tongue that contain taste buds?
fungiform and circumvallate
Which of the following is NOT true of saliva?
Saliva contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins.
*A client is scheduled for an oral cholecystogram (an x-ray of the gallbladder). The nurse should plan to order what type of diet for the evening meal before the test? (Note: the night before the test, the patient swallows 6 tablets, one at a time, that contain the contrast medium.)
low fat diet
Select the statement that is TRUE concerning primary teeth.
There are 20 deciduous teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20.
The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?
plicae circulares and intestinal villi
Surgical cutting of the frenulum would occur in which part of the body?
*A client who has had a gastrectomy (partial or full surgical removal of the stomach) is not producing sufficient intrinsic factor. The nurse interprets that the client has lost the ability to absorb cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) in the
Which of these is NOT part of splanchnic circulation?
inferior vena cava
The function of goblet cells is to
produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for digestion.
In general, the sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called
The salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells?
serous cells and mucous cells
The function of hepatic portal circulation is to
collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage.
In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach
initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins.
*A client is experiencing delayed gastric emptying. The nurse determines that dysfunction of the following structures is responsible for the client’s symptoms?
Peristaltic waves are
waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another.
From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen out.
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa
You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?
Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the
chief cells of the stomach.
Nervous control of gastric secretions is provided by
the vagus nerve and enteric plexus.
The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the
What part of the tooth makes contact with food while chewing?
Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?
If an incision has to be made in the jejunum to remove an
obstruction, the physician will identify this region of the small
bowel by its
long vasa recta arteries.
long vasa recta arteries
Hepatocyes do NOT
produce digestive enzymes
The ________ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure.
The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite to form the
hepatopancreatic ampulla (of Vater).
Choose the INCORRECT statement regarding bile.
Bile contains enzymes for chemical digestion of polysaccharides.
Which of the following is an essential role played by bacteria of the large intestine?
synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins
The capillaries that nourish the internal epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the
The terms enamel, pulp cavity, dentin, and gingiva would refer to the
teeth and gums
The portion of the stomach surrounding the lower esophageal sphincter is called the:
The vermiform appendix is a small projection that extends from the
The primary function of the gallbladder is to:
The first part of the small intestine is the:
The main function of the large intestine is to:
reabsorb water and electrolytes
A combining form that means “abdominal wall” is
A disease of the liver that is spread primarily through contact with contaminated blood or blood products is
Bulimia nervosa is characterized by :
Alternating binge eating and purging through vomiting, laxatives or diuretics
Which organ removes bilirubin from the blood, manufactures many of the plasma proteins, and is concerned with the production of clotting factors?
The pouches of the large intestine are called:
The portion of the stomach above the level of the lower esophageal sphincter is the:
A weak place in the diaphragm that allows a portion of an abdominal organ, such as the stomach, to protrude upward through the esophageal opening and into the thorax is a/an
Which of the following is used to examine the lower part of the large intestine (rectum)?
The structure that binds the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall is the:
The x-ray record of the gallbladder made after the ingestion of radiopaque granules is a/an
The portion of the small intestine that joins the large intestine is the:
Which one of the following is most closely associated with anorexia nervosa?
A belief that one is overweight even when dangerously thin
All of the following nutrients supply the body with energy EXCEPT:
Medical terms relating to the digestive system often are constructed according to the sequence in which food passes through the system. Which of the following sequences is/are correct? Correct answer not provided….
Rectum, stomach, mouth, pharynx, jejunum, ileum, cecum, sigmoid colon,
The function of the small intestine is:
digestion and absorption of nutrients
Which of the following drugs can be classified as an antidiarrheal medication?
A person diagnosed with GERD is likely to be be prescreibed which of the following medications?
Protein makes up all of the following EXCEPT :
The wavelike muscular contractions that move food through the digestive tract is
The inner lining of the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract is composed of:
Inflammation of the gums is
The suffix -phagia means:
A combining form that means “umbilicus” or “navel” is:
A word that means “suture of the region over the stomach” is:
Excision of the gallbladder is called a:
A disease of the periodontal area symptomized by the flow of pus is:
Hepat/o- is a combining form meaning:
An abnormal lack of appetite results in:
Although there are 20 teeth in the first set of deciduous or milk teeth, the number of permanent teeth is:
The large blind pouch at the beginning of the large intestine is the:
The reservoir for bile is the:
The most common benign tumors of the digestive tract are:
Blood in the stools is called:
difficulty in swallowing
The anatomic structure that is not part of the small intestine is the:
A patient is to have a flexible sigmoidoscopic examination. You should assist the patient to assume the:
A patient who is having an upper gastrointestinal (GI) series will:
drink a suspension of barium sulfate
Gastr/o- is a combining form meaning:
Chemical digestion of carbohydrates starts in the:
The accessory organ of the large intestine is the:
Inflammation of the appendix
The Islets of Langerhans secrete:
Which duct carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum?
The plicae circulares, microvilli, and villi are:
Structures that increase surface absorption area in the small intestine
The double-layered, apron-like structure that hangs from the lower border of the stomach is the:
The salivary glands located in the front of the ear that become inflamed and enlarged during mumps are the:
The outer layer of the intestine is the:
The roof of the mouth is formed by the:
Hard and soft palates
The teeth are composed primarily of:
Which of the following substances are absorbed in the stomach?
Another name for the folds of the stomach is:
Which of the following is not part of the stomach?
The client asks you what causes a peptic ulcer to develop. You respond that recent research indicates that many peptic ulcers are the result of which of the following?
Helicobacter pylori infection
A physician has determined that a client has developed hepatatis from contaminated food. You ascertain that the client most likely has which type of hepatitis?
The layer of the digestive tract that is composed of stratified and columnar epithelium is the:
The layer of the digestive tract that generates peristalsis is the:
The structure that prevents food and liquid from entering the nasal cavities above the mouth is the:
Enamel is found in the:
Crown of the tooth
The part of the stomach that joins with the small intestine is the:
The term tha means “condition of having gallstones” is:
At the hepatic flexure, the:
Ascending colon becomes the transverse colon
Which of the following is a disorder related to the motility of the large intestine?
Diarrhea and constipation
The vermiform appendix:
Gets its name because it looks like a worm
Enzymes are important in:
Amylase is made in the:
Salivary glands and the pancrease
Causes the emulsification of fat and Works in the small intestine and is made in the liver
Which of the following is not part of the alimentary canal?
Which of the following enzymes is produced in the stomach?
The cartilage “lid” that closes to direct food down the esophagus is the:
The valve at the outlet of the stomach is called the:
Diverticulosis/diverticulitis is associated with which organ?
A disease that results in autodigestion (digestion of self) is:
The pancreas secretes:
Digestive enzymes, insulin and Pancreatic juice