Gastrointestinal Tract

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1

Which of the following is NOT a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?

production of rennin

2

Chyme is created in the

stomach.

3

*A client with appendicitis is scheduled for an appendectomy. The nurse providing preoperative care for the client understands that the appendix is attached to the

cecum.

4

Paneth cells

secrete enzymes that kill bacteria.

5

*A nurse who is caring for an older client is aware that the client is at risk for prolonged medication effects as a result of the normal aging process. The nurse would be even more concerned with this effect if the client had a history of disease of the

liver.

6

Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include

secretin.

7

*A client with a diagnosis of stomach ulcers due to gastric hyperacidity asks the nurse why the acid hasn’t caused an ulcer in the small intestine as well. The nurse responds that the pH of the intestinal contents is raised by bicarbonate, which is present in

pancreatic juice.

8

*A nurse is caring for a hospitalized client diagnosed with pancreatitis. The nurse anticipates that the enzyme _____ will remain normal in the client.

lactase

9

You have just eaten french fries, buttered toast, ice cream, and whole milk. Which of the following glands would be active in helping you to digest this food?

the pancreas

10

Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach. These secretions are stimulated by the presence of

protein and peptide fragments.

11

There are some 20 known pathogens found in the large intestine; our ________ antibody-mediated response restricts them from going beyond the mucosa and causing problems.

Ig A

12

*A nurse is providing a simple overview of the anatomy of the liver and gallbladder for a client hospitalized with biliary obstruction. The nurse explains that normally the liver stores bile in the gallbladder, which is connected to the liver’s biliary system by the

cystic duct.

13

*A nurse is giving dietary instructions to a client who has a new colostomy. The nurse encourages the client to eat foods representing which of the following diets for the first 4 to 6 weeks postoperatively? (Hint: A colostomy is a surgical procedure that connects part of the colon to the anterior abdominal wall. After a colostomy, the patient’s feces leave the body through the opening made in the abdomen.)

low residue diet

14

Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?

Cholecystokinin

15

When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called

chemical digestion.

16

*A client with gastric hypersecretion is scheduled for surgery. The nurse teaches the client that the procedure will lesson the stomach’s production of acid because it involves severing part of the

vagus nerve.

17

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the large intestine?

It lies deep to the pancreas and stomach

18

Which of the following are types of papillae on the tongue that contain taste buds?

fungiform and circumvallate

19

Which of the following is NOT true of saliva?

Saliva contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins.

20

*A client is scheduled for an oral cholecystogram (an x-ray of the gallbladder). The nurse should plan to order what type of diet for the evening meal before the test? (Note: the night before the test, the patient swallows 6 tablets, one at a time, that contain the contrast medium.)

low fat diet

21

Select the statement that is TRUE concerning primary teeth.

There are 20 deciduous teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20.

22

The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?

plicae circulares and intestinal villi

23

Surgical cutting of the frenulum would occur in which part of the body?

tongue

24

*A client who has had a gastrectomy (partial or full surgical removal of the stomach) is not producing sufficient intrinsic factor. The nurse interprets that the client has lost the ability to absorb cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) in the

small intestine.

25

Which of these is NOT part of splanchnic circulation?

inferior vena cava

26

The function of goblet cells is to

produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for digestion.

27

In general, the sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called

mesenteries.

28

The salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells?

serous cells and mucous cells

29

The function of hepatic portal circulation is to

collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage.

30

In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach

initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins.

31

*A client is experiencing delayed gastric emptying. The nurse determines that dysfunction of the following structures is responsible for the client’s symptoms?

pyloric sphincter

32

Peristaltic waves are

waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another.

33

From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen out.

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

34

You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?

amylase

35

Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the

chief cells of the stomach.

36

Nervous control of gastric secretions is provided by

the vagus nerve and enteric plexus.

37

The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the

ileum.

38

What part of the tooth makes contact with food while chewing?

enamel

39

Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?

parietal cells

40

If an incision has to be made in the jejunum to remove an obstruction, the physician will identify this region of the small bowel by its
long vasa recta arteries.

long vasa recta arteries

41

Hepatocyes do NOT

produce digestive enzymes

42

The ________ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure.

liver

43

The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite to form the

hepatopancreatic ampulla (of Vater).

44

Choose the INCORRECT statement regarding bile.

Bile contains enzymes for chemical digestion of polysaccharides.

45

Which of the following is an essential role played by bacteria of the large intestine?

synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins

46

The capillaries that nourish the internal epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the

lamina propria.

47

The terms enamel, pulp cavity, dentin, and gingiva would refer to the

teeth and gums

48

The portion of the stomach surrounding the lower esophageal sphincter is called the:

Cardia

49

The vermiform appendix is a small projection that extends from the

Cecum

50

The primary function of the gallbladder is to:

store bile

51

The first part of the small intestine is the:

duodenum

52

The main function of the large intestine is to:

reabsorb water and electrolytes

53

A combining form that means “abdominal wall” is

laparo-

54

A disease of the liver that is spread primarily through contact with contaminated blood or blood products is

hepatitis B

55

Bulimia nervosa is characterized by :

Alternating binge eating and purging through vomiting, laxatives or diuretics

56

Which organ removes bilirubin from the blood, manufactures many of the plasma proteins, and is concerned with the production of clotting factors?

liver

57

The pouches of the large intestine are called:

Haustra

58

The portion of the stomach above the level of the lower esophageal sphincter is the:

fundus

59

A weak place in the diaphragm that allows a portion of an abdominal organ, such as the stomach, to protrude upward through the esophageal opening and into the thorax is a/an

hiatal hernia

60

Which of the following is used to examine the lower part of the large intestine (rectum)?

Proctoscope

61

The structure that binds the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall is the:

mesentery

62

The x-ray record of the gallbladder made after the ingestion of radiopaque granules is a/an

cholecystogram

63

The portion of the small intestine that joins the large intestine is the:

ileum

64

Which one of the following is most closely associated with anorexia nervosa?

A belief that one is overweight even when dangerously thin

65

All of the following nutrients supply the body with energy EXCEPT:

Vitamins

66

Medical terms relating to the digestive system often are constructed according to the sequence in which food passes through the system. Which of the following sequences is/are correct? Correct answer not provided….

Rectum, stomach, mouth, pharynx, jejunum, ileum, cecum, sigmoid colon,

67

The function of the small intestine is:

digestion and absorption of nutrients

68

Which of the following drugs can be classified as an antidiarrheal medication?

loperamide

69

A person diagnosed with GERD is likely to be be prescreibed which of the following medications?

Esomeprazole

70

Protein makes up all of the following EXCEPT :

Adipose tissue

71

The wavelike muscular contractions that move food through the digestive tract is

peristalsis

72

The inner lining of the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract is composed of:

epithelium

73

Inflammation of the gums is

gingivitis

74

The suffix -phagia means:

Eating

75

A combining form that means “umbilicus” or “navel” is:

omphalo-

76

A word that means “suture of the region over the stomach” is:

epigastrorrhaphy

77

Excision of the gallbladder is called a:

cholecystectomy

78

A disease of the periodontal area symptomized by the flow of pus is:

pyorrhea

79

Hepat/o- is a combining form meaning:

liver

80

An abnormal lack of appetite results in:

Anorexia

81

Although there are 20 teeth in the first set of deciduous or milk teeth, the number of permanent teeth is:

32

82

The large blind pouch at the beginning of the large intestine is the:

Cecum

83

The reservoir for bile is the:

gallbladder

84

The most common benign tumors of the digestive tract are:

Polyps

85

Blood in the stools is called:

melena

86

Dysphagia means:

difficulty in swallowing

87

The anatomic structure that is not part of the small intestine is the:

cecum

88

A patient is to have a flexible sigmoidoscopic examination. You should assist the patient to assume the:

Sims position

89

A patient who is having an upper gastrointestinal (GI) series will:

drink a suspension of barium sulfate

90

Gastr/o- is a combining form meaning:

stomach

91

Chemical digestion of carbohydrates starts in the:

mouth

92

The accessory organ of the large intestine is the:

vermiform appendix

93

Appendicitis means:

Inflammation of the appendix

94

-Ectomy means:

Excision

95

The Islets of Langerhans secrete:

Insulin

96

Which duct carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum?

Common bile

97

The plicae circulares, microvilli, and villi are:

Structures that increase surface absorption area in the small intestine

98

The double-layered, apron-like structure that hangs from the lower border of the stomach is the:

Greater omentum

99

The salivary glands located in the front of the ear that become inflamed and enlarged during mumps are the:

Parotid

100

The outer layer of the intestine is the:

Serosa

101

The roof of the mouth is formed by the:

Hard and soft palates

102

The teeth are composed primarily of:

Dentin

103

Which of the following substances are absorbed in the stomach?

Alcohol

104

Another name for the folds of the stomach is:

Rugae

105

Which of the following is not part of the stomach?

Hilum

106

The client asks you what causes a peptic ulcer to develop. You respond that recent research indicates that many peptic ulcers are the result of which of the following?

Helicobacter pylori infection

107

A physician has determined that a client has developed hepatatis from contaminated food. You ascertain that the client most likely has which type of hepatitis?

Hepatitis A

108

The layer of the digestive tract that is composed of stratified and columnar epithelium is the:

Mucosa

109

The layer of the digestive tract that generates peristalsis is the:

Muscularis

110

The structure that prevents food and liquid from entering the nasal cavities above the mouth is the:

Frenulum

111

Enamel is found in the:

Crown of the tooth

112

The part of the stomach that joins with the small intestine is the:

Pylorus

113

The term tha means “condition of having gallstones” is:

Cholelithiasis

114

At the hepatic flexure, the:

Ascending colon becomes the transverse colon

115

Which of the following is a disorder related to the motility of the large intestine?

Diarrhea and constipation

116

The vermiform appendix:

Gets its name because it looks like a worm

117

Enzymes are important in:

Chemical digestion

118

Amylase is made in the:

Salivary glands and the pancrease

119

Bile:

Causes the emulsification of fat and Works in the small intestine and is made in the liver

120

Which of the following is not part of the alimentary canal?

gall bladder

121

Which of the following enzymes is produced in the stomach?

pepsin

122

The cartilage “lid” that closes to direct food down the esophagus is the:

Epiglottis

123

The valve at the outlet of the stomach is called the:

Pyloric sphincter

124

Diverticulosis/diverticulitis is associated with which organ?

Large intestine

125

A disease that results in autodigestion (digestion of self) is:

Pancreatitis

126

The pancreas secretes:

Digestive enzymes, insulin and Pancreatic juice