Renal, Gastrointestinal, Electrolytes Exam

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1

Renal tubules produce urine through all the following except:

adsorption

2

The first step of urine production in which fluids and dissolved substances are forced through a membrane by pressure is called:

glomerular filtration

3

An area of specialization concerned primarily with diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the kidneys is

nephrology

4

The part of the urinary tract that collects urine in the kidney is the

renal pelvis

5

Enuresis is:

nocturnal bed-wetting

6

A capillary network of blood vessels within the renal cortex that functions as a filter is called the:

glomerulus

7

A kidney disease that is inherited and produces grapelike, fluid-filled sacs or cysts in the collecting tubes of the cortex of the kidney is

polycystic kidney disease

8

The functional unit of the kidney responsible for removing waste and regulating fluid is the:

nephron

9

A urinary tract disease that causes inflammation of the bladder is

cystitis

10

What class of drugs is used to regulate the level of fluid in the body?

Diuretic

11

Visual examination of the bladder is

cystoscopy

12

Which of the following sig codes refers to these directions: Take one tablespoon after meals as needed for indigestion?

1 Tbsp pc prn for indigestion

13

The prescence of blood in the urine is

hemoptysis

14

In routine urinalysis, all of the following are physical properties of the urine except

appearance

15

The kidneys are positioned:

retroperitoneally

16

The kidneys:

receive 15 - 30% of the blood pumped from the heart and help maintain proper acid-base balance

17

The cortex of the kidney is the:

outer part of the kidney

18

The pelvis of the kidney is:

an expansion of the upper end of the ureter

19

The nephron is composed of the:

renal corpuscle and renal tubules

20

Bowman’s capsule is:

the cup-shaped top part of the nephron

21

The glomerulus is:

a network of blood capillaries

22

The distal convoluted tubules are:

the part of the nephron between the loop of Henle and the collecting tube

23

The loop of Henle is:

has a hairpin turn in its structure and part of the renal tubules

24

Which part of the nephron can be found in the medulla of the kidney?

the loop of Henle

25

Kidneys help regulate the concentration of what substance in the blood?

Sodium, potassium and bicarbonate

.

26

The movement of substances out of the renal tubules into the blood capillaries is called:

reabsorption

27

The dissolved substances and fluid that move from the glomerulus into Bowman’s capsule are called:

glomerular filtrate

28

The movement of substances from the blood into the renal tubules is called:

Secretion

29

The amount of glomerular filtrate produced in 1 day is approximately:

180 liters

30

Which hormone is released by the posterior pituitary gland and increases the permeability of the collecting tube to water?

ADH

31

Which hormone is secreted by the adrenal glands and increases the absorption of salt?

Aldosterone

32

Which hormone is secreted by the heart and is the salt-and water-losing hormone?

ANH

33

The production of an unusually large amount of urine is called:

Polyuria

34

The renal pelvis drains into the:

Ureter

35

Urine leaves the body through the:

Urethra

36

The trigone is found in what structure?

urinary bladder

37

Emptying of the bladder is called:

Voiding, urinating and micturtion

38

What part of urinating is under voluntary control?

relaxation of the external sphincter

39

What condition occurs when a person urinates involuntarily?

incontinence

40

Renal calculi can develop with the crystallization of:

Calcium and uric acid

41

Which of the following is NOT directly associated with the renal corpuscle?

an interlobar artery

42

The fluid link between the external and internal environment is

plasma.

43

The urinary bladder is composed of

transitional epithelium.

44

The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin

when a decrease in the blood pressure occurs.

45

*A client becomes hypovolemic (state of decreased blood volume) as a result of excess blood loss during surgery. Which of the following physiological responses is needed to restore adequate circulating blood volume?

production of angiotensin II

46

Which of the following is NOT a part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

podocyte cells

47

Which cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in solute content of the filtrate?

macula densa cells

48

Select the CORRECT statement about the ureters.

The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract.

49

A rising blood pH and falling carbon dioxide levels due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates

urinary acidosis.

50

*A nurse is evaluating a client’s serum creatinine level. On noting that the level is high, the nurse interprets that which of the following parts of the client’s nephrons are not secreting this substance adequately?

proximal tubule

51

All of the following are examples of extracellular fluid EXCEPT

cytosol.

52

The water that is NOT reabsorbed by the collecting ducts enters the

minor calyx.

53

The male urethra

Does not serve both the urinary and reproductive systems at the same time.

54

The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for

regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure.

55

Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by

facilitated diffusion.

56

*A client has a high potassium level. The nurse understands that retention of potassium by the kidneys will be accompanied by

increased sodium retention.

57

What hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and sodium ion and water retention?

atrial natriuretic peptide

58

Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it

inhibits the release of ADH.

59

Which of the choices below is NOT an essential role of salts in the body?

anabolism of proteins

60

Which of the following hormones is important in stimulating water conservation in the kidneys?

antidiuretic hormone

61

Which of the choices below is NOT a function of the urinary system?

eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat

62

*A client experiencing metabolic acidosis is to be admitted to the nursing unit. The nurse develops a plan of care to support the client physiologically until the cells of the renal tubules secrete sufficient

hydrogen ions.

63

________ is locally regulated in the blood by the active form of vitamin D, which acts as a cofactor.

Calcium

64

The movement of fluids between cellular compartments

is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces.

65

*When reading the product literature for a medication, a nurse notes that the medication is nephrotoxic. The nurse interprets that this medication could cause damage to which of the following structures of the kidneys?

nephron

66

The renal corpuscle is made up of

Bowman's capsule and the glomerulus.

67

The functional and structural unit of the kidney is the

nephron.

68

Which of the following best describes kidney function in older adults (70 years or older)?

Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy.

69

The term alkaline reserve is used to describe the ________ buffer system.

bicarbonate

70

Peristaltic waves are

waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another.

71

*A client has been diagnosed with a bladder infection. The nurse understands that the client would be at risk for extension of the infection to the kidneys with improper function of which of the following areas of the urinary system.

ureteric orifice

72

The body’s water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions?

sodium ions

73

Respiratory acidosis can occur when

a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction.

74

The term hypotonic hydration refers to

a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water.

75

One of the major physiological factors that triggers thirst is

a rise in plasma osmolality.

76

Urine passes through the

pelvis of the kidney to the ureter to the bladder to the urethra.

77

Problems with fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance are particularly common in infants because of their

inefficient kidneys.

78

Which of the following does NOT depend on the presence of electrolytes?

amount of body fat

79

Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most ________ is found in the intracellular fluid.

potassium

80

The ________ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney.

arcuate

81

*A client in renal failure is hyponatremic (low in sodium). The nurse attributes this problem to the client’s insufficient production of

aldosterone.

82

Which statement is NOT true of the position of the kidneys in the body?

They lie in the perineal cavity.

83

*A client is experiencing a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion. When explaining this disorder to the client and family, the nurse recalls that ADH works to reabsorb water in the

distal tubule and collecting duct.

84

Which of the following two organs function as the most important physiological buffer systems?

the lungs and kidneys

85

The lamina propria is composed of

loose areolar connective tissue.

86

Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products?

enteroendocrine cells

87

The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it

stabilizes and protects the kidneys by holding them in their normal position.

88

The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is

glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure).

89

*A client’s kidneys are retaining large amounts of sodium. The nurse anticipates that the kidneys also are retaining large amounts of

chloride and bicarbonate.

90

What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

It helps regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys.

91

Which of the following statements describes the histology of the ureters?

They are trilayered (mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia).

92

Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?

vitamin D

93

Select the CORRECT statement about the nephrons.

Podocytes are the branching epithelial cells that line the glomerulus of the nephron.

94

The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it

is drained by an efferent arteriole.