Intro to Wildlife Conservation- 230
Naturalistic Attitude on Wild Life
Have contact with wildlife
To manipulate - application of some human activity to achieve a planned goal
To save – protect, keep from harm
Use wisely – protect from being used up
Resource -Conservation Ethic
Nature consisted of natural resources “that should be used to provide the greatest good for the greatest number of people for the longest time”
Nature is a temple, people are negative, and nature must be preserved from people
People are part of nature and have the right to use it, but not abuse it…they must restrain their exploitation and be good stewards
Wildlife exposure, contact with nature
Ecosystem, species interdependence
See it as an ecosystem as a whole not in parts
Pets, love for individual animals
Ethical concern for welfare of animals
Curiosity, study, knowledge
Artistic character, display
Avoidance, dislike, fear
Factors affecting people's attitudes towards wildlife
What wasGifford Pinchot's conservation Ethic?
Conservation Ethic: Natural resources should be use to provide the greatest good for the greatest number of people for the longest time
JohnMuir's Conservation ethic
Preservation Ethic: Nature is a temple, people are negative, and nature must be preserved from people
Land Ethic: People are part of nature and have the right to use it, but not abuse it... they must restrain their exploitation and good stewards
Eras in North American Conservation
Prior to 1850: Era of Abundance
1850-1900: Era of Overexploitation
1900-1932: Ear of protection
1933-1961: Era of Resource Management
1962-present: Era of Environmental Management
Era of Abundance
-Abundant wildlife and few people= moderate impact
-Subsistence hunting vs. limited market hunting: beaver
-Technology change: fire arms and steel traps
Era of Overexploitation
1850- early 1900's
-Immigration from Europe= American population goes from 17 million to 32 million
-Market hunting and over hunting
-Development making hunting profitable:
*Firearms with cartridges, refrigeration, railroads, telegraph
US Supreme Court in Geer vs. Connecticut
1896: wildlife is held in trust by state/fed govt’s
Some North American animals that went extinct
Era of Protection
Power of Federal Government in conservation
President Theodore Roosevelt
Gifford Pinchot and the concept of conservation
Era of Game Management
-Aldo Leopold wrote Game management
-First cooperative wildlife research units
-North American Wildlife Conference
-The wildlife Society
Era of Environmental management
Rachel Carson wrote Silent Spring
First Earth Day
Endangered species act
Climate change and sustainable development
Trends oin Wildlife Conservation
-Maine has very progressive laws
-More and more emphasis on all wildlife, not just game.
Authorized an excise tax on all hunting equipment and supplies (11%
on firearms, ammunition, archery and 10% on handguns).
The revenues generated are distributed among states based on the size of the state and the number of hunting licenses purchased.
In the first year, 43 of 48 states passed legislation to become eligible for the funds.
Modeled after P-R Act and provides federal grants to states for management and restoration of fish having "material value in connection with sport or recreation in the marine and/or fresh waters of the United States."
Federal Aid in Sport Fish Restoration Act (1950)
Funds are derived from:
10% excise tax on certain items of sport fishing tackle
3% excise tax on fish finders and electric trolling motors
import duties on fishing tackle, yachts and pleasure craft
a portion of motorboat fuel tax revenues and small engine fuel taxes.
Sea Mink Extinction
1894: Disappeared after intensive fur hunting
Extirpated from Maine- 1900
Almost extinct by 1900 due to over hunting and destruction of habitat
Restored by: Succession, reintroduction
Almost extinct due to over hunting and destruction of habitat.
Restored by migratory Bird act, nest boxes
1st written “law” about wild animals
As described in the Bible by Moses:
If you come across a bird's nest with chicks or eggs, either in a tree or on the ground along the road, and the mother is sitting on the chicks or eggs, you must not take the mother along with the young (Deuteronomy 22:6)
1st clear record of game management
Comes from Marco Polo, described the game laws of Kublai khan (A.D.
1215 – 1294).
Harvest restrictions to allow increases
Established food plots
Established winter feeding
Early Restrictions and Legislation
1852: Maine hires nation’s first game warden
1864: New York issues first hunting licenses
1872: Yellowstone National Park
1886: First game department- Massachusetts Commission of Fisheries and Game.
1896: US Supreme Court in Geer vs. Connecticut (wildlife is held in trust by state/fed govt’s)
Number of specie and their relative abundance
Variation in genetic composition
Variety of ecosystem types
All the interacting populations of organisms and their physical
environment, that occupy a defined space (at a given time)
Includes biotic and abiotic components
Make own food (algae, phytoplankton)
Eat other plants/animals
Decomposers and detritivores
Decomposers: Recycle nutrients in ecosystems.
Detrivores: Insects or other scavengers that feed on wastes or dead bodies.
Some organisms such as deep ocean bacteria draw energy from hydrothermal vents and produce carbohydrates from hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas
Four types or levels of consumers:
Primary level consumers or herbivores (rabbits, zooplankton, eat
Secondary level consumers or carnivores (foxes, fish, eat producers)
Tertiary and higher level consumers (carnivores that eat other carnivores)
Omnivores - both
Variety of ecosystem types
Variety of healthy ecosystem types (biome)
What is a Biome?
large terrestrial regions characterized by similar climate, soil,
plants, and animals (large-scale ecosystems)
localized events in a short amount of time, an area’s temp, precipitation, wind speed, cloud cover…
a region’s general pattern of atmospheric or weather conditions over a longer period of time – years, decades, centuries…
4 factors determine climate characteristics:
Latitude – distance from the equator
Elevation – height above sea level
Average precipitation and average temperature, acting together
Intrinsic Biodiversity Values
(ethical decision) – biodiversity should be protected simply because it exists, regardless of their uses for us.
Instrumental Biodiversity Values
(anthropocentric decision) - biodiversity should be protected because we derive economic and ecological services.
“Use” Instrumental value
– economic goods and services, ecological services, recreation, scientific research, and preserving the option for such uses in the future.
“Non-use” Instrumental value
- individuals who never visit or otherwise use a natural resource may
nonetheless be affected by changes in its status or quality.
Monetary expression of their preferences for these resources is known as nonuse or passive-use economic value.
Existence Non-Use Value
– the satisfaction of knowing that biodiversity exists, whether or not we actually ever see it or get direct use.
Aesthetic Non-use value
People appreciate the beauty, tranquility, and spiritual connections with nature.
Bequest Non-use value
The willingness of some people to pay to protect biodiversity for future generations.
Sooner or later all species either...
adapt to their changing environment or go extinct.
5 major causes of biodiversity crisis
H: habitat destruction and degradation (main cause) – forest, wetland
I: invasive species (second cause) – kudzu, fire ants, zebra mussel, spotted cayman)
P: population growth (human)
Food water, wood, energy, medicines and disease research and treatments
Air and water purification, soil fertility, waste disposal, pest control
Why care about biodiversity
Aesthetic and Spiritual pleasure
genetic diversity (populations of individuals varying in their genetic makeup) is key to...
Stereotyped behaviors that are based on preset neural pathways and are evoked by a key stimulus
a behavior the animal has developed based on its experience with a particular stimulus
Mechanism for selecting mates:
1) Opposite sex
2) Right species
3) Good genes
4) Good “resources”
Other ways to demonstrate good genes
Resource holding assessment
“mating pair” one male & one female
Favored by species in which males contribute to offspring survival
stable pair bonds vs. seasonal monogamy
90 % of birds
How prevalent is monogamy in mammals?
Extra Pair Copulations (EPC’s)
In many species, members of a monogamous pair will mate outside of bond
Multiple sexual partners
One male, many females (dominate mating system in mammals)
Resource Defense Polygyny
Males control a resource that females need
Often seen in mammals
Species with no male contribution to parental care
Male ornaments, ritualized behavior to show quality
Females shop from assembled males
woman takes two or more husbands at the same time
Explosive breeding assemblages
Females become receptive for only a brief time
No social bonds formed.
Born or hatched "Helpless"
Born “relatively mature” and mobile at birth or hatching
Energetic trade off
More offspring= less care
Who provides care Polygyny
Who provides care Polyandry?
Why some male fish care about parenting
External fertilization ensures paternity
Presence of eggs is a signal to other females that he is a good parent
Females need to focus on producing eggs
When not just the parents provide care ex. bee hives
Care by neither parents nor relatives
Hierarchical process at multiple process scales
Narrow range of geographic range
Can live just about anywhere
Very specific geographic range
The area that an animal or its social group uses regularly. May overlap with other animals' home ranges.
The portion of a range from which others are excluded
usually varies with species, function, and the available resources
Functions of territories
Territorial behavior costs
Energy and time
Increased visibility to predators
Increased risk of injury from competitors
Territory Defense Mechanism
Animals that are active at dawn and dusk
Regular (annual or seasonal) movement back and forth from place to place
Opposite of migration
Leaving area of birth
Males disperse further then females
Dispersal trade offs
-Reduce competition with relatives
-Colonization of new habitat
-May not find the right habitat
All forms of life that are not domesticated, especially wild animals
Distinct difference in size or appearance between the sexes of an animal in addition to difference between the sexual organs themselves.
Forests cover What % of total land area?
What five countries account for >50% of the total forest area?
Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada, USA, and China
Three Principles for Forest Management
1.Harvest to mimic natural disturbance regimes.
2. Plant diversity = wildlife diversity
3. Structural diversity = wildlife diversity
1.Harvest to mimic natural disturbance regimes.
= wildlife diversity
Both at the stand and landscape scale
To achieve good wildlife habitat management...
Must maintain a balanced forest age distribution across the landscape
How do animals perceive habitat scale?
Different species need different habitat
(habitat specialists vs.
Different species perceive scale differently
Edge = horizontal structure
Soften the transition zone or ecotone between forest stands.
How much cutting is too much in respects to different animals?
No single harvest regime is “good” or “bad” for all wildlife
NO single forest stand can provide quality habitat for all wildlife species!
Residual woody materials
What should we do with residual material after logging and why?
Leave residual materials after logging to match those left after a natural disturbance
Snag Management and Use: Stages 2 – 4:
perching & gleaners
Snag Management and Use: Stages 3 – 6
Snag Management and Use: Stages 4 – 6
Primary and secondary cavity users
Snags are temporary & must be continually replaced.
Need enough live trees so that normal tree mortality will produce an adequate number of snags.
Dead woody material
Reduces soil erosion
Adds organic matter to soil
Problems with residual material
High intensity - short rotation
Managing downed wood
Fire kills small logs, but also creates more snags
Manage for older forest
– large terrestrial regions characterized by similar climate, soil, plants, and animals.
What makes a biome?
Mean annual temperature + Mean annual precipitation = biome type
This was first noted by R. Whittaker (Cornell University)
Eight major terrestrial biomes:
Conifer forest (taiga or boreal forest)
What are the three plant life-forms that contribute to Biome categories?
Biome categories reflect the relative contribution of three plant
1. Trees: forest ecosyastems are characterized by a closed canopy of trees.
2. Shrubs: woodland and savanna ecosystems are characterized by the codominance of grasses and trees (or shrubs).
3.Grasses: dominated by grasses – can be short or tall or both.
Desert Terrestrial Ecosystem
Desert is a general category used to describe the scarcity of plant cover.
leaves live for only a single year or growing season ex. maple
Leaves are lost in response to low temperatures (fig 23.3 a&b). AKA drought deciduous- wants to conserve water during drought so they get rid of their leaves
leaves are lost in response to dry conditions (fig 23.3 c&d).
Leaves live beyond a year.
The broadleaf evergreen leaf is characteristic of environments with no distinct growing season, growth continues year-round.
The needle-leaf evergreen Tree
Leaf is characteristic of environments with a very short growing season or nutrient limitation.
Classifying forest type: High to low precipitation (in order):
Broadleaf evergreen trees (tropical and subtropical rain forest).
Drought-deciduous trees (seasonal tropical forests).
Stature and density of trees decline and give rise to woodlands and savannas.
Trees can no longer be supported, giving rise to arid shrublands.
Forests have enough precipitation to support stands of trees and are found in tropical, temperate, and sub-polar regions.
The tropical rain forest
The tropical rain forest is dominated by broadleaf evergreen plants.
Restricted to the equatorial zone between 10° N and 10° S.
Temperatures are warm throughout the year and rainfall occurs almost daily.
Mean temperature >18°C (64.4F)
Minimum monthly precipitation >60 mm (>2”)
climbing vines, grow upward into the canopy
grow downward from the canopy
attach to tree branches and trunks (mossy looking)
Layers within forests
Allows for many niches to form...
Filling such specialized niches enables species to avoid or minimize competition for resources and results in the coexistence of a great variety of specie
Tropical rain forests can be divided into five vertical layers:
Emergent trees: raptors prefer to nest here
Upper canopy: variety of birds and raptors
Lower canopy: Variety of birds, primates, insects
Shrub understory: wooly opussum, reptiles
Ground layer of herbs and ferns: reptiles, amphibians, insects
What is a microlimate?
Localized/ specialized habitat
Life in the canopy examples.
What is the first, second, and third largest tropical rainforest?
The Amazon basin of South America is the largest and most continuous TRF.
The second largest is in Southeast Asia.
The third largest is in West Africa.
TRFs also account for what % of global biological diversity?
About how many of the 3,000 plants identified by the National Cancer Institute as sources of cancer-fighting chemicals come from tropical forests?
What percent of all nonhuman primate species live in the tropical rain forests?
Why do TRF have such high biodiversity?
1. Predictable, consistent energy
2. Low environmental stress: Warm & moist
3. Long-term stability over time
4. Environmental complexity
-Higher tree height = higher bird diversity
5. Disturbance minimal (generally)
6. Complex biotic interactions:
e.g., pollination, parasitism, predation
Why is soil so thin?
Because things decompose SO fast, due to the constant moisture, warm climate
Major Conservation Issue: Deforestation
change in land use from forest to agriculture or urban use.
- It usually does not include forest after logging and regeneration
* The matter is not foresting, it is the lack of replanting
What percent of TRF cover has been lost to human impacts, and why?
Because... Slash and burn technique
Cut the forests for agriculture and
then the agriculture can’t survive for very long
Why is tropical deforestation occurring?
Ultimate causes: Population growth, poverty, government policies
Farming (subsistence and large scale)
Logging leading to farming or ranching
Increased susceptibility to fires
Mining & urbanization
Solutions to TRF loss?
1. Extractive Reserves
2. Sustainable forestry
3. Forest restoration
Dry tropical forest
Undergoes a dry season whose length is based on latitude and supports
drought-deciduous trees and shrubs.
The farther from the equator, the longer the dry season.
Found in tropical areas with year round warm temps and wet/dry seasons (like savannas).
Tree height is lower and canopies are less dense than in rain forests.