Intro to Wildlife Conservation- 230

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1

Naturalistic Attitude on Wild Life

Have contact with wildlife

2

Management

To manipulate - application of some human activity to achieve a planned goal

3

Preservation

To save – protect, keep from harm

4

Conservation

Use wisely – protect from being used up

5

Resource -Conservation Ethic

Nature consisted of natural resources “that should be used to provide the greatest good for the greatest number of people for the longest time”

6

Preservation Ethic

Nature is a temple, people are negative, and nature must be preserved from people

7

Land Ethic

People are part of nature and have the right to use it, but not abuse it…they must restrain their exploitation and be good stewards

8

Naturalistic

Wildlife exposure, contact with nature

9

Ecologistic

Ecosystem, species interdependence

See it as an ecosystem as a whole not in parts

10

Humanistic

Pets, love for individual animals

11

Moralistic

Ethical concern for welfare of animals

12

Scientistic

Curiosity, study, knowledge

13

Aesthetic

Artistic character, display

14

Utilitaristic

Practicality, usefulness

15

Dominionistic

Mastery, superiority

16

Negativistic

Avoidance, dislike, fear

17

Neutralistic

Indifference

18

Factors affecting people's attitudes towards wildlife

Demographic

Socioeconomic

Geographic

Cultural

Media

Direct contact

Animal Characteristics

19

What wasGifford Pinchot's conservation Ethic?

Conservation Ethic: Natural resources should be use to provide the greatest good for the greatest number of people for the longest time

20

JohnMuir's Conservation ethic

Preservation Ethic: Nature is a temple, people are negative, and nature must be preserved from people

21

Aldo Leopold

Land Ethic: People are part of nature and have the right to use it, but not abuse it... they must restrain their exploitation and good stewards

22

Eras in North American Conservation

Prior to 1850: Era of Abundance

1850-1900: Era of Overexploitation

1900-1932: Ear of protection

1933-1961: Era of Resource Management

1962-present: Era of Environmental Management

23

Era of Abundance

1600-1849

-Abundant wildlife and few people= moderate impact

-Subsistence hunting vs. limited market hunting: beaver

-Technology change: fire arms and steel traps

24

Era of Overexploitation

1850- early 1900's

-Immigration from Europe= American population goes from 17 million to 32 million

-Market hunting and over hunting

-Forest conversion

-Development making hunting profitable:

*Firearms with cartridges, refrigeration, railroads, telegraph

25

US Supreme Court in Geer vs. Connecticut

1896: wildlife is held in trust by state/fed govt’s

26

Some North American animals that went extinct

Great Auk

Labrador Duck

27

Era of Protection

1900-1932

Power of Federal Government in conservation

President Theodore Roosevelt

Gifford Pinchot and the concept of conservation

28

Era of Game Management

1933-1962

-Aldo Leopold wrote Game management

-First cooperative wildlife research units

-North American Wildlife Conference

-The wildlife Society

29

Era of Environmental management

1962- present

Rachel Carson wrote Silent Spring

First Earth Day

Endangered species act

Earth Summit

Climate change and sustainable development

30

Trends oin Wildlife Conservation

Environmental issues

-Maine has very progressive laws

Broadening perspective

-More and more emphasis on all wildlife, not just game.

31

Pittman-Robertson Act

Authorized an excise tax on all hunting equipment and supplies (11% on firearms, ammunition, archery and 10% on handguns).

The revenues generated are distributed among states based on the size of the state and the number of hunting licenses purchased.

In the first year, 43 of 48 states passed legislation to become eligible for the funds.

32

Dingell-Johnson Act

Modeled after P-R Act and provides federal grants to states for management and restoration of fish having "material value in connection with sport or recreation in the marine and/or fresh waters of the United States."

33

Federal Aid in Sport Fish Restoration Act (1950)

Funds are derived from:
10% excise tax on certain items of sport fishing tackle

3% excise tax on fish finders and electric trolling motors

import duties on fishing tackle, yachts and pleasure craft

a portion of motorboat fuel tax revenues and small engine fuel taxes.

34

Sea Mink Extinction

1894: Disappeared after intensive fur hunting

35

Caribou

Extirpated from Maine- 1900

36

Wild Turkey

Almost extinct by 1900 due to over hunting and destruction of habitat

Restored by: Succession, reintroduction

37

Woodd ducks

Almost extinct due to over hunting and destruction of habitat.

Restored by migratory Bird act, nest boxes

38

1st written “law” about wild animals

As described in the Bible by Moses:

If you come across a bird's nest with chicks or eggs, either in a tree or on the ground along the road, and the mother is sitting on the chicks or eggs, you must not take the mother along with the young (Deuteronomy 22:6)

39

1st clear record of game management

Comes from Marco Polo, described the game laws of Kublai khan (A.D. 1215 – 1294).
Harvest restrictions to allow increases
Established food plots
Established winter feeding
Protected cover

40

Early Restrictions and Legislation

1852: Maine hires nation’s first game warden

1864: New York issues first hunting licenses

1872: Yellowstone National Park

1886: First game department- Massachusetts Commission of Fisheries and Game.

1896: US Supreme Court in Geer vs. Connecticut (wildlife is held in trust by state/fed govt’s)

41

Species Diversity

Number of specie and their relative abundance

42

Genetic Diversity

Variation in genetic composition

43

Ecosystem Diversity

Variety of ecosystem types

44

Ecosystem

All the interacting populations of organisms and their physical environment, that occupy a defined space (at a given time)

Includes biotic and abiotic components

45

Producers (autotrophs)

Make own food (algae, phytoplankton)

46

Consumers (heterotrophs)

Eat other plants/animals

47

Decomposers and detritivores

Decomposers: Recycle nutrients in ecosystems.

Detrivores: Insects or other scavengers that feed on wastes or dead bodies.

48

Chemosynthesis:

Some organisms such as deep ocean bacteria draw energy from hydrothermal vents and produce carbohydrates from hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas

49

Four types or levels of consumers:

Primary level consumers or herbivores (rabbits, zooplankton, eat producers)

Secondary level consumers or carnivores (foxes, fish, eat producers)

Tertiary and higher level consumers (carnivores that eat other carnivores)

Omnivores - both

50

Energy Flow

one-way path

51

Recycling

multiple pathways

52

Ecosystem Diversity

Variety of ecosystem types

53

Functional Diversity

Variety of healthy ecosystem types (biome)

54

What is a Biome?

large terrestrial regions characterized by similar climate, soil, plants, and animals (large-scale ecosystems)
Tundra
Forests
Dessert
Grassland
Polar

55

Weather

localized events in a short amount of time, an area’s temp, precipitation, wind speed, cloud cover…

56

Climate:

a region’s general pattern of atmospheric or weather conditions over a longer period of time – years, decades, centuries…

57

4 factors determine climate characteristics:

Average temperature
Average precipitation
Latitude – distance from the equator
Elevation – height above sea level

58

Limiting factors

Average precipitation and average temperature, acting together

59

Intrinsic Biodiversity Values

(ethical decision) – biodiversity should be protected simply because it exists, regardless of their uses for us.

60

Instrumental Biodiversity Values

(anthropocentric decision) - biodiversity should be protected because we derive economic and ecological services.

61

“Use” Instrumental value

– economic goods and services, ecological services, recreation, scientific research, and preserving the option for such uses in the future.

62

“Non-use” Instrumental value

- individuals who never visit or otherwise use a natural resource may nonetheless be affected by changes in its status or quality.
Monetary expression of their preferences for these resources is known as nonuse or passive-use economic value.

63

Existence Non-Use Value

– the satisfaction of knowing that biodiversity exists, whether or not we actually ever see it or get direct use.

64

Aesthetic Non-use value

People appreciate the beauty, tranquility, and spiritual connections with nature.

65

Bequest Non-use value

The willingness of some people to pay to protect biodiversity for future generations.

66

Sooner or later all species either...

adapt to their changing environment or go extinct.

67

5 major causes of biodiversity crisis

H: habitat destruction and degradation (main cause) – forest, wetland losses

I: invasive species (second cause) – kudzu, fire ants, zebra mussel, spotted cayman)

P: pollution

P: population growth (human)

O: overexploitation

68

Natural Resources

Food water, wood, energy, medicines and disease research and treatments

69

Natural Services

Air and water purification, soil fertility, waste disposal, pest control

70

Why care about biodiversity

Natural resources

Natural services

World's economy

Aesthetic and Spiritual pleasure

71

genetic diversity (populations of individuals varying in their genetic makeup) is key to...

maintaining biodiversity

72

Innate behavior

Stereotyped behaviors that are based on preset neural pathways and are evoked by a key stimulus

73

Learned behavior

a behavior the animal has developed based on its experience with a particular stimulus

74

Mechanism for selecting mates:

1) Opposite sex

2) Right species

3) Good genes

4) Good “resources”

75

Other ways to demonstrate good genes

Dominance Hierarchy

Resource holding assessment

76

Monogamy

“mating pair” one male & one female

Favored by species in which males contribute to offspring survival

stable pair bonds vs. seasonal monogamy

90 % of birds

77

How prevalent is monogamy in mammals?

3%

78

Extra Pair Copulations (EPC’s)

In many species, members of a monogamous pair will mate outside of bond

79

Polygmous

Multiple sexual partners
A. Polygyny
B. Polyandry

80

Polygyny

One male, many females (dominate mating system in mammals)

81

Resource Defense Polygyny

Males control a resource that females need

Often seen in mammals

82

Lek Polygyny

Species with no male contribution to parental care

Male ornaments, ritualized behavior to show quality

Females shop from assembled males

83

Polyandry

woman takes two or more husbands at the same time

84

Promiscuous

Explosive breeding assemblages

Females become receptive for only a brief time

No social bonds formed.

85

Altricial

Born or hatched "Helpless"

86

Precocial

Born “relatively mature” and mobile at birth or hatching

87

Energetic trade off

More offspring= less care

88

Who provides care Polygyny

Mother

89

Who provides care Polyandry?

Father

90

Why some male fish care about parenting

External fertilization ensures paternity

Presence of eggs is a signal to other females that he is a good parent

Females need to focus on producing eggs

91

Eusociality

When not just the parents provide care ex. bee hives

92

Brood Parasites

Care by neither parents nor relatives

93

Habitat Selection

Hierarchical process at multiple process scales

94

Endemic

Narrow range of geographic range

95

Habitat Generalist

Can live just about anywhere

ex. Racoons

96

Habitat Specialists

Very specific geographic range

97

Home range

The area that an animal or its social group uses regularly. May overlap with other animals' home ranges.

98

Territory

The portion of a range from which others are excluded

usually varies with species, function, and the available resources

99

Functions of territories

Food

Mates

nest sites

100

Territorial behavior costs

Energy and time

Increased visibility to predators

Increased risk of injury from competitors

101

Territory Defense Mechanism

Fighting

Visual Communication

Acoustic communication

Olfactory communication

102

Animals that are active at dawn and dusk

Crepuscular

103

Migration

Regular (annual or seasonal) movement back and forth from place to place

104

One-way movement

Opposite of migration

105

Dispersal

Leaving area of birth

Males disperse further then females

106

Dispersal trade offs

Benefits:

-Inbreeding avoidance

-Reduce competition with relatives

-Colonization of new habitat

Costs:

-Energy

-Predation risk

-May not find the right habitat

107

Wildlife

All forms of life that are not domesticated, especially wild animals

108

Sexual dimorphism

Distinct difference in size or appearance between the sexes of an animal in addition to difference between the sexual organs themselves.

109

Forests cover What % of total land area?

31%

110

What five countries account for >50% of the total forest area?

Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada, USA, and China

111

Three Principles for Forest Management

1.Harvest to mimic natural disturbance regimes.
2. Plant diversity = wildlife diversity

3. Structural diversity = wildlife diversity

112

1.Harvest to mimic natural disturbance regimes.

Temporal factors
Spatial factors
Residual materials

113

Structural diversity

= wildlife diversity
Vertical
Horizontal
Both at the stand and landscape scale

114

To achieve good wildlife habitat management...

Must maintain a balanced forest age distribution across the landscape

115

How do animals perceive habitat scale?

Different species need different habitat
(habitat specialists vs. generalists)

Different species perceive scale differently

116

Horizontal Structure

Edge = horizontal structure

Soften the transition zone or ecotone between forest stands.

117

How much cutting is too much in respects to different animals?

No single harvest regime is “good” or “bad” for all wildlife

NO single forest stand can provide quality habitat for all wildlife species!

118

Residual woody materials

Dead:
Snags
Logs
Slash
Live:
Trees
Seedlings
Seeds

119

What should we do with residual material after logging and why?

Leave residual materials after logging to match those left after a natural disturbance

120

Snag Management and Use: Stages 2 – 4:

perching & gleaners

121

Snag Management and Use: Stages 3 – 6

foragers

122

Snag Management and Use: Stages 4 – 6

Primary and secondary cavity users

123

Snag Management

Snags are temporary & must be continually replaced.

Need enough live trees so that normal tree mortality will produce an adequate number of snags.

124

Dead woody material

Reduces soil erosion

Adds organic matter to soil

Promotes regeneration

125

Problems with residual material

Aesthetics

High intensity - short rotation

Safety considerations

126

Managing downed wood

Leave slash

Leave snags

Fire kills small logs, but also creates more snags

Manage for older forest

127

Biomes

– large terrestrial regions characterized by similar climate, soil, plants, and animals.

128

Terrestrial Ecosystems

What makes a biome?

Mean annual temperature + Mean annual precipitation = biome type

This was first noted by R. Whittaker (Cornell University)

129

Eight major terrestrial biomes:

Tropical forest
Temperate forest
Conifer forest (taiga or boreal forest)
Temperate grasslands
Tropical savanna
Chaparral (shrublands)
Tundra
Desert

130

What are the three plant life-forms that contribute to Biome categories?

Biome categories reflect the relative contribution of three plant life-forms:
1. Trees: forest ecosyastems are characterized by a closed canopy of trees.
2. Shrubs: woodland and savanna ecosystems are characterized by the codominance of grasses and trees (or shrubs).

3.Grasses: dominated by grasses – can be short or tall or both.

131

Desert Terrestrial Ecosystem

Desert is a general category used to describe the scarcity of plant cover.

132

Deciduous trees

leaves live for only a single year or growing season ex. maple

133

Winter-deciduous Trees

Leaves are lost in response to low temperatures (fig 23.3 a&b). AKA drought deciduous- wants to conserve water during drought so they get rid of their leaves

134

Drought-deciduous Trees

leaves are lost in response to dry conditions (fig 23.3 c&d).

135

Evergreen Trees

Leaves live beyond a year.
The broadleaf evergreen leaf is characteristic of environments with no distinct growing season, growth continues year-round.

136

The needle-leaf evergreen Tree

Leaf is characteristic of environments with a very short growing season or nutrient limitation.

137

Classifying forest type: High to low precipitation (in order):

Broadleaf evergreen trees (tropical and subtropical rain forest).

Drought-deciduous trees (seasonal tropical forests).

Stature and density of trees decline and give rise to woodlands and savannas.

Trees can no longer be supported, giving rise to arid shrublands.

138

Forest biomes

Forests have enough precipitation to support stands of trees and are found in tropical, temperate, and sub-polar regions.

139

The tropical rain forest

The tropical rain forest is dominated by broadleaf evergreen plants.

Restricted to the equatorial zone between 10° N and 10° S.

Temperatures are warm throughout the year and rainfall occurs almost daily.
Mean temperature >18°C (64.4F)
Minimum monthly precipitation >60 mm (>2”)

140

Lianas:

climbing vines, grow upward into the canopy

141

Strangler figs:

grow downward from the canopy

142

Epiphytes:

attach to tree branches and trunks (mossy looking)

143

Stratification:

Layers within forests

Allows for many niches to form...

Filling such specialized niches enables species to avoid or minimize competition for resources and results in the coexistence of a great variety of specie

144

Tropical rain forests can be divided into five vertical layers:

Emergent trees: raptors prefer to nest here

Upper canopy: variety of birds and raptors

Lower canopy: Variety of birds, primates, insects

Shrub understory: wooly opussum, reptiles

Ground layer of herbs and ferns: reptiles, amphibians, insects

145

What is a microlimate?

Localized/ specialized habitat
Life in the canopy examples.

146

What is the first, second, and third largest tropical rainforest?

The Amazon basin of South America is the largest and most continuous TRF.

The second largest is in Southeast Asia.

The third largest is in West Africa.

147

TRFs also account for what % of global biological diversity?

>50

148

About how many of the 3,000 plants identified by the National Cancer Institute as sources of cancer-fighting chemicals come from tropical forests?

2,100

149

What percent of all nonhuman primate species live in the tropical rain forests?

90%

150

Why do TRF have such high biodiversity?

1. Predictable, consistent energy

2. Low environmental stress: Warm & moist

3. Long-term stability over time

4. Environmental complexity
-Spatial complexity
-Higher tree height = higher bird diversity

5. Disturbance minimal (generally)

6. Complex biotic interactions:
e.g., pollination, parasitism, predation

151

Why is soil so thin?

Because things decompose SO fast, due to the constant moisture, warm climate

152

Major Conservation Issue: Deforestation

Deforestation
change in land use from forest to agriculture or urban use.
- It usually does not include forest after logging and regeneration

* The matter is not foresting, it is the lack of replanting

153

What percent of TRF cover has been lost to human impacts, and why?

40%

Because... Slash and burn technique
Cut the forests for agriculture and
then the agriculture can’t survive for very long

154

Why is tropical deforestation occurring?

Ultimate causes: Population growth, poverty, government policies

Proximate causes:
Farming (subsistence and large scale)
Cattle ranching
Logging leading to farming or ranching
Increased susceptibility to fires
Mining & urbanization

155

Solutions to TRF loss?

1. Extractive Reserves

2. Sustainable forestry

3. Forest restoration

156

Dry tropical forest

Undergoes a dry season whose length is based on latitude and supports drought-deciduous trees and shrubs.
The farther from the equator, the longer the dry season.
Found in tropical areas with year round warm temps and wet/dry seasons (like savannas).

Tree height is lower and canopies are less dense than in rain forests.