Human Disease Ch5

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1

innate immunity

always present

attacks nonself microbes, doesn't distinguish between different kinds

2

innate mechanisms

epithelial barriers

phagocytic cells

plasma proteins

cell messenger molecules

3

cells of innate immunity

polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN's)

moncytes and macrophages

natural killer cells

4

cytokines

general term for chemical messengers invoved in immune procss

5

types of cytokines

interferons

interleukin

tumor necrosis factor

6

intereron

interferes with the multiplication of virus within cell

7

interleukin

sends regulatory signals between cells of the immune system

8

tumor necrosis factor

destroys foreign or abnormal cells and tumor cells

9

neutrophils

aka PMN's

prominent in early inflammatory response

ingest bacteria, dead cells and cell debris

short lived

type of phagocyte

10

humoral immunity

B lymphocytes

make antibodies

11

types of antibodies

IgG

IgM

IgE

IgA

IgD

12

IgG

best antibody

crosses placent

13

IgM

first antibody made

14

IgE

allergic reactions

15

IgA

mucosal immunity

16

IgD

B cell receptor

17

T lymphocytes

celular immune system

18

types of lymphocytes

helper T cells

cytotoxic T cells

suppressor T cells

19

cell mediated immunity

antigen must first be process and displayed on the cell membrane of the antigen processing cell before activating T Cells

20

APC

macrophages

dendritic cells

B cells

21

MHC

present processed antigen to responding cells of the immune system

22

MHC class 1

present on all nucleated cells

restricted to cytotoxic T cells

23

MHC class 2

only on APC

restricted to helper T cells

24

secondary immune response

following initial encounter-formation of memory cells, cells remember how to fight pathogen

this is the basis for vaccines

25

hypersensitivity

too much response

26

immunodeficiency

too little response

27

autoimmune disease

inappropriate response

28

types of hypersensitivity reactions

Types 1-3= B cell reactions

type 4 T cell reactions

29

type 1 sensitivity

immediate hypersensitivity

preformed antibodies-person already has encountered antigen

cells involved-mast cells and basophils

30

allergic disease

hypersensitivity to environmental substance

ie hay fever, hives, eczema, systemic anaphylaxis

type 1 hypersensitivity

31

atopy

heightened immune responses to common allergens

32

anaphylaxis

sensitizing antigen circulates throughout the body, this triggers widespread mediator relase from Ig coate mast cells and basophils

decrease in blood pressure, respiratory distress

treat immediately with epinephrine

33

type 2 hypersensitivity

cytotoxic hypersensitivity

antibody directly attaches to antigen in target tissue

targets the host cell rather than the foreign antigen

34

types of type 2 hypersensitivity

death of target cell-killed by other components of immune system

antibodies block receptor function-ie myasthenia gravis

35

type 3 hypersensitivity

immune complex hypersensitivity

antigen and antibody combine to form immune complex

desposition induced inflammatory response ie blood vessels kidney joints

36

types of type 3 hypersensitivity

distant

local

37

type 4 sensitivity

delayed hypersensitivity

T lymphocytes are sensitized and activated on second contact with same antigen

38

steps of type 4 hypersensitivity

antigen uptake, presentation by APC

presentation to helper T cells

memory T cells migrate to site

second exposure=release mediators and attract other cells such as macrophages

39

examples of type 4 hypersensitivity

poison ivy

metallic injury (jewelry)

celiac disease

40

autoimmune disease

self becomes foreign

41

examples of autoimmune disease

lupus

rheumatoid arthritis

myasthenia gravis

type 1 diabetes

multiple sclerosis

42

why does body turn on itself in autoimmune disease?

loss of self tolerance

genetic and microbial factors

43

molecular mimicry

resemblance of pathgen and host antigen

immune response initiated by microbe becomes directed at self cells

44

loss of self tolerance

hidden antigen may become unmasked

decrease suppressor T cell function

45

genetic and microbial factors in AI diseases

gender

MHC

age

induction by microbes

more likely in women

46

lupus

type 3 hypersensitivity

butterfly rash

common in women

systemic

arthritis and kidney dysfunction

results in eventual death due to organ failure

47

treatment of autoimmune diseases

radiation-stops immune system from fighting itself

immunosuppressive drugs that impede cell division

adrenal corticosteroid hormones