Human Disease Ch4

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Inflammation and Repair
updated 6 years ago by hoovemaa
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1

purpose of inflammation

contain damage and set up for repair

2

what is inflammation

nonspecific response to any agent that causes cell injury

can be physical, chemical, or microbiolgical

acute or chronic

3

combined response of inflammation

local blood vessels

blood cells

plasma proteins

surrounding tissue

systemic-ie fever

4

hall marks of inflammation

heat

redness

tenderness

swelling

pain

5

sign of inflammation: heat is due to...

dilated blood vessels

6

swelling is due to

accumulation of fluid and exudate (fluid that escapes from the blood) due to extravasation of plasma

7

tenderness and pain are due to

irritation of nerve endings

8

4 stages of acute inflammation

vascular stage

movement of WBC into tissue

elimination of pathogen

repair

9

vascular stage

brief vasoconstriction followed by vasodilation creates hyperemia=more blood to the area=more nutrients, platelets, antibodies

alterations in endothelial cells-are more permeable allows for antibodies

is the cause of pain and swelling

10

exudate

fluid mixture of protein, leukocytes, and tissue debris

11

5 types of exudate

serous

purulent

fibrinous

adhesions

hemorrhagic

12

serous

blisterlike

13

purulent

pus-dead neutrophils

14

fibrinous

sticky, cloating factor

15

adhesions

bands of fibrous tissue that bind adjacent tissue together (think closing up a cut)

16

hemorrhagic

increased red blood cells

17

3 steps of cellular reaction

margination-go to the margins

emigration-leave the area

phagocytosis-eat damaged tissue

phagocytes follow neutrophils

18

phagocytosis

cell eating

type of endocytosis

19

2 types of chemical agents that intensify inflammatory process

cell derived mediators

mediators from blood plasma

20

cell derived mediators

mast cells-specialized immune cels found in CT filled with granules with vasoactive amines ie histamine, prostaglandins, leukotrienes

21

mediators from blood plasma

bradykinin

complement-activated by antigen-antibody reaction

series of proteins that interact in a regular sequence

22

arachidonic acid

long chain fatty acid

acts as hormone

results in prostaglandins and leukotrienes

23

the kinin system

functions to activate and assist inflammatory cells

primary is Bradykinin

causes vascular permeability and pain

24

complement system

activates or collaborates with other component of the inflammatory response

25

infection

inflammatory process caused by disease producing organism

26

"-itis"

indicates an infection or inflammatory process such as appendicitis, bronchitis etc

27

cellulitis

acute spreading infection of skin and depper tissue

28

abscess

formation of pus

29

septicemia

overwhelming infection of pathogenic bacteria in blood

30

pathogenic

capable of producing disease

31

virulence

a measure of disease severity (ebola is high virulence)

32

host

affected individual

33

2 types of chronic inflammatory lesions

abscess

cellulitis

34

chronic infection

host and pathogenic organism are evenly matched

associated with repeated attempts of the body at healing

predominant cells-lymphocytes and macrophages

35

severe inflammatory response results in...

tissue damage

repleacement of tissue

heal with scarring

36

mild inflammatory process results in...

self limiting, subsides with tissue resolution

37

3 possible outcomes of inflammation

resolution (pathogen and damaged tissue remove)

repair

regeneration

38

inflammation ends with...

the beginning of repair

39

repair

scar formation

may lead to tissue dysfunction

40

regeneration

nearly complete restoration of tissue

41

3 stages of wound healing

inflammation

granulation tissue stage

scar formation stage

42

granulation tissue stage

new capillaries are formed

fibroblasts enter the area

43

scar formation stage

layering of new collagen by fibroblases

maturation and reorganization

takes many years

44

determinants of wound healing

infection

nutrition-specifically protein and vitamin c

age

steroid drugs

diabetes- cannot grow new capillaries