Human Disease Ch2

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1

hierarchy

atoms

cells

tissue

organ

organ system

organism

2

stem cells

all cell come from stem cells

have the ability to become various types of cells

3

totipotent stem cells

can become any type of cell including organism

4

pluripotent stem cells

can't become organism

become all cells

5

multipotent stem cells

limited range of possibilities

ie spinal cord

6

embryonic stem cells

come from pluripotent stem cells

7

adult stem cells come from

progenitor cells

generate specialized cells

8

four types of tissue

epithelial

muscle

nervous

connective (cartilage)

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3 types of tissue

ectoderm

mesoderm

endoderm

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where does tissue originate from

from germ layers from inner cell mass of blastocysts

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ectoderm

nervous tissue

skin

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mesoderm

muscle tissue

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endoderm

inner tracts

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5 types of cell adaptation

atrophy

hypertrophy/hyperplasia

metaplasia

dysplasia

increased enzyme synthesis

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atrophy

cell shrinkage, decrease in cell size

due to aging

decreased blood supply, nutrition, and lack of neural or hormonal support

16

hypertrophy

increase in cell size

due to hormonal stimulaiton or increase functional demand

results in-increased protein synthesis within cell and decreased protein breakdown

17

hyperplasia

increase in cell number

does not occur in muscle, skeleton, or neurons

due to-hormonal stimulation, increased functional demand and increased stress

results in increased cell division (if it can)

18

metaplasia

replacement of one cell type by another

most common in epithelium (think skin)

reversible if stressor is removed

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dysplasia

change in cell resulting in abnormal cell size/shape/organization

said to be premalignant, will go on to become cancerous

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path of cell adaptation

normal

metaplasia

dysplasia

cancer

21

most common cause of cell injury

hypoxy-lack of oxygen to cell

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morphological changes in cell injury

cell swells

steatosis-accumulation of fat

23

cell swelling

loss of atp

failure of Na/K pump, sodium moves into cell water follows sodium into cell and causes swelling

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2 types of cell death

apoptosis

necrosis

25

apoptosis

programmed cell death

removes worn out, unwanted tissue

is a normal process

think implosion

26

necrosis

unregulated death

cell swells and bursts

damages nearby cll

think cell supernova

27

aging

telomeres become too short and can no longer divide

dna is more damaged and has more free radicals and cannot repair telomeres

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telomeres

"plastic cap" on the end of the cell that protects DNA

become too short due to aging and repeated mitosis

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frailty

result of sarcopenia

functional decline, disability, disease, and death

30

sarcopenia

loss of muscle mass due to age