Central Nervous System

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created 5 years ago by Mircat
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Review for Human Anatomy
updated 5 years ago by Mircat
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1

The parasympathetic division is under what?

unconscious control

2

The somatic division is under what?

conscious control

3

PNS is divided into what two systems?

1.) somatic system
2.) parasympathetic system

4

What is the peripheral nervous system?

contains cranial nerves and spinal nerves

5

What is the central nervous system?

containing the brain and the central nervous system.

6

What is neurogila?

a special type of connective tissue for the nervous system that support,maintain and protects neurons.

7

Glial cells are different that neurons because?

they are:
-more numerous than neurons
-capable of mitosis

8

What does the Sensory (afferent) division do?

It has nerve fibers that transmit impulses to the CNS from sensory receptors.

9

Neurons are what? What does a Neuron Contain?

-units of nerve tissue
- conduct impulses
-perform the sensory, integrative and motor functions of nervous system.

They contain

a cell body
many dendrites
a single axon

10

What is the Motor (efferent) division?

It is an impulse carried from the CNS to muscles and glands.

11

What areas of the body are Autonomic (involuntary)?

NS - CNS to smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands.

12

What areas of the body are Somatic (Voluntary)?

NS - CNS to Skeletal muscles.

13

What does the sympathetic division do?

Enables the "Flight or Fight" system. Energy channeled for emergencies.

14

What does the parasymatic division do?

Deals with all non-emergency situations

15

What are cell bodies?

They are the major biosynthetic center of neurons; located in ganglia in the PNS

16

What are neurotransmitters?

Substances released at axonal endings to stimulate a nervous impulse

17

Are axons or dendrites myelinated? Which one is always unmyelinated?

Axons are myelinated; dendrites are always unmyelinated

18

What is the difference between grey and white matter?

Grey matter is composed of nerve cell bodies and unemyelinated fibers; white matter however, is primarily myelinated axons.

19

Define Nucleus

Mass of nerve cell bodies and dendrites in the CNS

20

Define Ganglion (ganglia)

Group of nerve cell bodies in the PNS

21

What is a synapse?

A junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.

22

What are the three functional types of neurons?

afferent (sensory)
interneuron (association)
efferent (motor)

23

What does the cerebrum consist of?

-Cerebral cortex

-cerebral white matter

-basal (cerebral) nuclei

24

What does the diencephalon consist of?

Thalamus

Hypothalamus

Epithalamus

25

What does the brain stem consist of?

Midbrain

Pons

Medulla Oblongota

26

What are the five lobes and their function?

Frontal - thoughts, speech muscles

Parietal - information, mathematics, language, sensory impulese

Temporal - Sound, odors

Occipital - hearing

Cerebellum - fine motor skills

27

What are gyri and sulci?

Sulucs - grooves (valleys)

Gyri - elevated ridges (hills)

28

What is basal nuclei? What are some diseases of this area?

Grey matter that affects motor movement.

Some diseases are Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease