Human Physiology Ch 5

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1

anabolism

requires input of energy to synthesize large molecules

2

catabolism

releases energy by breaking down large molecules into smaller molecules

3

catabolic reactions that breakdwon food serve as energy sources for what?

the anabolism of ATP production

4

catabolism involves what kind of reaction?

oxidation-reduction

oxidation-lose electron

reduction-gain electron

5

complete catabolism of glucose requires what?

oxygen as the final electron receptor

this is called aerobic respiration

first steps are anaerobic

6

cellular respiration

release of energy in biomolecules (food) and use of that energy to generate ATP

energy + ADP + Pi =ATP

7

aerobic respiration

oxygen utilized

8

anaerobic respiration

oxygen NOT utilized

9

thre steps of aerobic respiration

glycolysis

citric acid cycle (Kreb's cycle)

electron transport

10

glycolysis

occurs in the cytoplasm

anaerobic

11

end product of glycolysis

pyruvate

2 ATP (4 made 2 expended)

12

coenzymes in glycolysis

NAD and FAD

13

functions of coenzymes in glycolysis

produce ATP anaerobically

are the starting point of the Kreb's cycle

14

fate of pyruvate

depends on presence of O2

aerobic or anaerobic metabolism

15

anaerobic metabolism of pyruvate

lactic acid pathway

used regularly by skeletal muscle fibers and red blood cells

net gain of 2 ATP

16

aerobic respiration

main method of making ATP

O2 used as a reactant in complete breakdown of biomolecules

makes tons of energy

starts with glycolysis turns to krebs and then electron transport

17

aerboic metabolism begins with..

pyruvate

18

aerobic metabolism

pyruvate enters mitochondria

combines with coenzyme A to form acetyl CoA

does NOT enter Kreb's cycle

19

kreb's cycle

begins with acetyl CoA

produces 3 NADH, 1 FADH 1 ATP per glucose, each Acetyl CoA does this twice thus producing 6,2,2 respectively

20

glycogenesis

cells don't store much glucose

"beginning of glycogen"

21

how much ATP is produced by one glucose molecule through the Kreb's cycle

38 ATP

22

glycogenolysis

saving of glucose

23

lactic acid

produced in skeletal muscle, shipped to liver, sent back to muscles

liver converts lactic acid to pyruvic acid and NADH

change is in pH that causes "burn"

24

gluconeogenesis substrates

lactate

pyruvate

glycerol

amino acids

25

gluconeogensis

formation of new glucose

process requires energy

used to maintain blood glucose levels

nervous system also relies on glucose in blood

fatty acids can't be used to make glycerol

26

do we get energy from fats and proteins

yes

9 kcal/gram from fat

4 kcal/gram from protein

27

white adipose tissue (white fat)

fat stored in adipose tissue as triglycerides

1 gram of fat = 9 kcal of energy

28

lipolysis

breaking down of triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol using enzyme lipase

fatty acids then enter blood to be used as energy elsewhere

glycerol is taken up by liver and converted to glucose through gluconeogenesis

29

beta oxidation

conversion of triglycerides into acetyl CoA

ocurs in mitochondrial matrix

30

beta oxidation mechanism

fatty acid cleaved into carbon then acetyl CoA which goes to the krebs cycle

produces 12 ATP per turn

each cleave produces 1 NAD and 1 FAD

ie 12 chain = 5 FADH x 2 = 10 ATP + 5 NADH x 3 = 15 for a total of 25 ATP

31

ketone bodies

are acidic

when rate of lipolysis exceeds utilization liver cells convert fatty acids into Acetyl CoA and then into ketones

this lack of carbohydrates slows down the kreb's cycle

32

ketoacidosis

too many ketones

33

amino acid metabolism

amino acids are neede to replace proteins in the body

if more amino acids are consumed than necessary they can be used for energy or converted to carbs or fat

body doesn't store them, instead turns them to fat

34

how do we use amino acids

transamination

strip amino group and send the carbon skeleton to the kreb's cycle