Human Physiology Ch 3

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1

plasma membrane

selective mechanical membrane

phospholipid bilayer

2

plasma membrane function

joins cells with neighboring cells to form organs/tissue

controls movement of substance in/out of cell

plays role in how cells respond to change

3

plasma membrane structure

made of proteins lipids and carbohydrates

fluid mosaic model

4

proteins in the plasma membrane

integral and peripheral

5

role of proteins in membrane

structure

transportation

receptors

self markers

6

carbs in plasma membrane

glycolipids

glycoproteins

act as protective layer

cell recognition

7

cholesterol in plasma membrane

fluidity

8

moving things in an out of cell

endocytosis- specifically phagocytosis and pinocytosis

exocytosis

9

endocytosis

Invagination of the plasma membrane to pull materials into the cell

10

receptor mediated endocytosis

specific endocytosis

binding of specific substances to protein receptors along plasma membrane to induce invagination

substances pulled into cell and packaged in a vesicle

11

phagocytosis

cell eating

cell extends pseudopods

pseudopods merge to form vacoule around substance

12

pinocytosis

cell drinking

13

exocytosis

merging of vesicle membrane with plasma membrane

materials release into extracellular fluid

used to export materials and add materials to plasma membrane

14

cilia

hair like structures projecting into extracellular fluid

contain microtubules

generate flow in extracellular material

15

flagella

whiplike structure on sperm

allow sperm to swim

16

microvilli

found on surfaces of tube like organs

fingerlike projections that increase organ surface area

facilitate movement of materials between intra and extracellular fluid

17

cytoplasm

portion of cell interior not occupied by nuclesu

holds organelles and cytoskeleton

18

cytoplasm function

enzymatic regulation of intermediate metabolism

place where protein is made

storage of fat, glycogen, and secretory vesicles

19

cytoskeleton

network of protein fibers made of microtubules and filaments

20

cytoskeleton function

structure

movement of materials in cell

external movement of cell

21

organelles

nucleus

endoplasmic reticulum (smooth and rough)

golgi complex

lysosomes

peroxisomes

mitochondria

22

lysosomes

sac like organs, contain digestive enzymes

break down large molecules-cell's stomach

destroy-bacteria, old organelles, food molecules

23

lysosome disorder-lysosomal storage disease

accumulation of macromolecules in lysosomes

genetic failure to make an enzyme needed to breakdown macromolecules

24

Tay-Sach's disease

lysosome can't break down lipids

25

peroxisomes

contain hydrogen peroxide

breakdown fatty acids

where oxidative reactions occur

occur highly in liver cells

26

mitochondria

power house of the cell, where ATP production occurs

27

mitochondria structure

possesses its own DNA (mtDNA) only from maternal inheritance

28

ribosomes

large protein RNA complexes

location-free floating and on rough endoplasmic reticulum

function-synthesize protein

29

endoplasmic reticulum

system of passageways from nuclear membrane to plasma membrane

30

granular (rough) endoplasmic reticulum

has ribosomes

functions in protein modification for cell membrane, interior of membrane bound organelles

31

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

no ribosomes

functions- lipid synthesis and Ca2+ storage

32

golgi complex

stacks of flatten sacs called cisternae

33

golgi complex function

processes ER products into final form that bud off as endosomes

sort and direct products to final destination in or out of cell (cell postal service)

34

nucleus

cell control center

surround by nuclear envelope that has nuclear pores

35

genes

sequence of DNA containing information needed for protein production

genes can encode for more than one protein

different types of cells express different sets of genes

36

chromosomes

23 pairs in normal humans

37

genome

the total of all the genes in the human body (~25,000)

38

proteome

the different proteins produced in the human body (~100,000)

39

genome hierarchy

genome

chromosome

gene

DNA

40

DNA and genes

contain chromatin-DNA and associated proteins (histones)

41

one single DNA double helix plus associated proteins equals what?

a chormosome

42

DNA to protein-translation

RNA sequence read by ribosomes

ribosome binds to mRNA

reads codons

tRNA binds with complimentary sequence (anticodon)

tRNA carries specific amino acid

43

transfer RNA

a single strand of RNA bent into a clover leaf shape

one end has the anticodon which has 3 nucleotides that will be complementary to the proper codon

other end has the appropriate amino acid

44

flow of genetic information

DNA to DNA=replication

DNA to RNA=transcription

RNA to protein=translation

45

3 types of RNA

messenger

transfer

ribosomal

46

mRNA

encodes the structure for a particular protein

47

tRNA

carries amino acids to ribosomes for inclusion in a newly synthesized polypeptide

48

rRNA

structural components of ribosomes

49

functions of the ER and golgi complex

newly formed proteins destined to leave the cel are made on the rough ER

1st 30ish amino acids are hydrophobic and attracted to the rough ER membrane

growing polypeptide chain enters the ER

leader sequence removed and other portions may be removed/added

secretory proteins are then sent to golgi complex

50

DNA replication

DNA must be copied prior to cell division

strands of a double helix are seperated

each strand used as a template to make a new copy of a complementary strand

considered semi-conservative

both get 1 old and 1 new strand

51

cell cyle phases

interphase- G1, S, G2

mitosis

52

G1

cell growth

53

S

DNA replication

54

G2

growth again

55

G0

when a cell is no longer dividing/growing ie in neurons skeletal or cardiac muscle

56

mitosis

formation of two daughter cells

57

chromatin

DNA that is relaxed

58

when does DNA duplication occur

before mitosis

59

stages of mitosis

prophase

metaphase

anaphase

telophase

60

meiosis

process by which 2 cell division steps produce gametes (ova or sperm)

only occurs in gonads (ovaries or testes)

61

homologous chormosomes

humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes

22 are autosomes and 1 pair are sex chromosomes

each pair is called homologous chromosomes and they have the same genes on them (but not identical DNA

62

necrosis

pathological cell death

damages nearby cells

think cell supernova

63

apoptosis

homeostatic cell death

cell dies off in a controlled fashion

does not damage nearby cell

think implosion

64

hyperplasia

increase in cell #

65

hypertrophy

increase in cell size, not number

66

epigenetics

not all DNA is actively expressed

the controlling of expression of DNA via methylation of cytosine in DNA that is preceded by guanine

this silences that gene