BIO 181 TEST 1 LECTURE 9

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1

what is relationship between glucose and ATP production?

Both plants and animals store glucose and oxidize it to provide chemical energy in the form of ATP.

2

cell respiration

any suite of reactions that uses electrons harvested from highenergy molecules to produce ATP via an electron transport chain.

3

aerobic respiration

oxygen is the final electron acceptor. (ex. humans)

4

anaerobic respiration

something other than oxygen is the final electron acceptor. (ex. some bacteria)

5

equation for glucose oxidation

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ! 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ~685 kcal of heat

6

Four major steps of aerobic respiration

1. Glycolysis

2. Pyruvate processing

3. Citric Acid Cycle

4. Electron transport chain (ETC) and oxidative phosphorylation

7

glycolysis

series of 10 reactions that occur in the cytosol

8

glycolysis

Overall it is “sugar splitting” one glucose into two pyruvate molecules.

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glycolysis investment phase

2 ATP are spent to phosphorylate glucose

10

glycolysis payoff phase

4 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate

11

glycolysis net

2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 pyruvate per glucose

12

substrate-level phosphorylation

ATP is produced by enzyme-catalyzed transfer of a phosphate group from an intermediate substrate to ADP

13

Oxidative phosphorylation

The ETC creates a H+ gradient, which provides energy for ATP production

14

substrate-level phosphorylation examples

glycolysis, citric acid cycle

15

oxidative phosphorylation examples

ATP synthase uses this energy to phosphorylate ADP to form ATP.

16

Glycolysis produces ATP via _______ phosphorylation.

substrate-level

17

Pyruvate Oxidation

Pyruvate is oxidized to form Acetyl CoA by the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase.

18

pyruvate oxidation

occurs in the mitochondrial matrix of eukaryotes.

19

Pyruvate is oxidized to ______. The enzyme ____ _____ catalyzes the reaction.

acetyl coA; pyruvate dehydrogenase

20

Each pyruvate produces....

1 Acetyl CoA, 1 NADH, and 1 CO2

21

citric acid cycle

starts with citrate (the salt of citric acid after the protons are released).

22

citric acid cycle

Acetyl CoA is oxidized to CO2

23

citric acid cycle

occurs in the mitochondrial matrix of eukaryotes.

24

Per molecule of Acetyl CoA .... is produced

3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATP/GTP (substrate-level phosphorylation), and 2 CO2 are produced.

25

Most of glucose’s energy is contained in the electrons transferred to ___ and _____

NADH and FADH2

26

ETC (electron transport chain)

consists of the molecules responsible for the oxidation of NADH and FADH2.

27

NADH and ____ donate electrons to the ____ . This ultimately produces a ___ gradient to power ___ synthesis (oxidative phosphorylation).

FADH2; ETC; H+; ATP

28

ETC and oxidative phosphorylation

The high Ep of their electrons is gradually decreased as they move through a series of redox reactions.

29

A series of redox reactions occur in the ETC... meaning...

Electrons step down in Ep from the electron carriers, through the complexes, and then to the final electron acceptor. When O is the final acceptor, H2O is formed.

30

Electron transfer in the ETC causes H+s to be pumped from the ___ ____ into the _____ space.

mitochondrial matrix; intermembrane

31

oxidative phosphorylation

The enzyme ATP synthase uses the H+ gradient to drive ATP synthesis via

32

oxidative phosphorylation

The majority of ATP is produced via

33

ATP synthase

The proton-motive force of the H+ gradient drives activity of this

34

How does ATP synthase work?

The rotor spins as H+s pass through, transmitting the rotation to the catalytic section. Here, ADP is phosphorylated to create ATP. The H+ gradient is referred to as a proton-motive force, emphasizing its capacity to do work.

35

Discovery of ATP synthase

When patches of mitochondrial matrix turn inside out and form vesicles, the lollipop-shaped proteins are revealed. Normally they face inward, towards the matrix.

36

net yield of ATP per glucose molecule

Net yield = 29 ATP per glucose molecule (4 from substrate-level phosphorylation, 25 from oxidative phosphorylation)

37

theoretical yield of ATP per glucose molecule

Theoretical yield = 38 ATP per glucose (energy is required to transport materials (e.g. NADH, Pi ) into the mitochondrial matrix

38

fermentation

regenerates NAD+ from NADH so that glycolysis can continue. Electrons removed from NADH are transferred to pyruvate.

39

Fermentation is less efficient than respiration because...

the glucose is not completely oxidized;

O is more electronegative than NADH

Yields 2 ATP vs. 29 ATP per glucose

40

Fermentation regenerates NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue. (examples of when fermentation happens because of this)

1)Pyruvate processed from glycolysis accepts electrons from NADH. Lactate and NAD+ are produced. This happens in your muscle cells.

2)Pyruvate is enzymatically converted to acetaldehyde and CO2. Acetaldehyde accepts electrons from NADH. EtOH and NAD+ are produced. This happens in yeast.