Psychology: Themes and Variations: Ch 12 Vocabulary Flashcards


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1

Archetypes

According to Jung, emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning.

2

Behaviorism

A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior.

3

Collective Unconscious

According to Jung, a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people's ancestral past.

4

Collectivism

Putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one's identity in terms of the groups one belongs to.

5

Compensation

According to Adler, efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one's abilities.

6

Conscious

Whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time.

7

Defense Mechanisms

Largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt.

8

Displacement

Diverting emotional feelings (usually anger) from their original source to a substitute target.

9

Ego

According to Freud, the decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle.

10

Extraverts

People who tend to be interested in the external world of people and things.

11

Factor Analysis

Statistical analysis of correlations among many variables to identify closely related clusters of variables.

12

Fixation

According to Freud, failure to move forward from one psychosexual stage to another as expected.

13

Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow's systematic arrangement of needs according to priority, which assumes that basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused.

14

Hindsight Bias

The tendency to mold one's interpretation of the past to fit how events actually turned out.

15

Humanism

A theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth.

16

Id

According to Freud, the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle.

17

Identification

Bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group.

18

Incongruence

The degree of disparity between one's self-concept and one's actual experience.

19

Individualism

Putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships.

20

Introverts

People who tend to be preoccupied with the internal world of their own thoughts, feelings, and experiences.

21

Model

A person whose behavior is observed by another.

22

Negative Reinforcement

The strengthening of a response because it is followed by the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus.

23

Observational Learning

A type of learning that occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models.

24

Oedipal Complex

According to Freud, children's manifestation of erotically tinged desires for their opposite-sex parent, accompanied by feelings of hostility toward their same-sex parent.

25

Personal Unconscious

According to Jung, the level of awareness that houses material that is not within one's conscious awareness because it has been repressed or forgotten.

26

Personality

An individual's unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits.

27

Personality Trait

A durable disposition to behave in a particular was in a variety of situations.

28

Phenomenological Approach

The assumption that one must appreciate individuals' personal, subjective experiences to truly understand their behavior.

29

Preconscious

According to Freud, the level of awareness that contains material just beneath the surface of conscious awareness that can easily be retrieved.

30

Pleasure Principle

According to Freud, the principle upon which the id operates, demanding immediate gratification of its urges.

31

Projection

Attributing one's own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another.

32

Projective Tests

Psychological tests that ask subjects to respond to vague, ambiguous stimuli in ways that may reveal the subjects' needs, feelings, and personality traits.

33

Psychodynamic Theories

All the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud that focus on unconscious mental forces.

34

Psychosexual Stages

According to Freud, developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personality.

35

Rationalization

Creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior.

36

Reaction Formation

Behaving in a way that's exactly the opposite of one's true feelings.

37

Reality Principle

According to Freud, the principle on which the ego operates, which seeks to delay gratification of the id's urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found.

38

Reciprocal Determinism

The assumption that internal mental events, external environmental events, and overt behavior all influence each other

39

Regression

A reversion to immature patterns of behavior.

40

Repression

Keeing distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious.

41

Self-Actualizing Persons

People with exceptionally healthy personalities, marked by continued personal growth.

42

Self-Concept

A collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior.

43

Self-Efficacy

One's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes.

44

Self-Enhancement

Focusing on positive feedback from others, exaggerating one's strengths, and seeing oneself as above average.

45

Self-Esteem

A person's overall assessment of her or his personal adequacy or worth.

46

Self-Report Inventories

Personality tests that ask individuals to answer a series of questions about their characteristic behavior.

47

Striving for Superiority

According to Adler, the universal drive to adapt, improve oneself, and master life's challenges.

48

Superego

According to Freud, the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong.

49

Unconscious

According to Freud, thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior.