Earth and Physical Science (TEAS)

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Light Years

distance light will travel within one year of time


Electromagnetic waves

waves of radiation that are characterized by electric and magnetic fields.

Such waves are members of a spectrum that is divided into bands of wavelengths that range from very short (trillionth of a meter) to very long (kilometers).

The spectrum is divided into bands of wavelengths ordered short to longest:

gamma, x-ray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave, and radio waves.

The visible part of the spectrum can be divided further into color bands from long to short:

red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet (ROYGBIV)



The energy from the Sun supports almost all life on Earth by the process of photosynthesis, which converts carbon dioxide and water into organic compounds (usually sugars) and oxygen.

The organic compounds, rich in carbon, act as a major source of biomass on earth.

The sun is also primarily responsible for driving weather and climate conditions on earth.


Joules (J) or calories.

work (the results of any change in energy) are often quantified in units of the metric system called Joules or calories.

Both are small, but joules is larger. It is more useful to refer to kilojoules or kilocalories in real world applications.


Kinetic Energy

energy of motion.


final answer units is in Joules

An increase in an objects velocity will result in a dramatic increase of an objects KE.

doubling of velocity will cause KE to increase by a factor of four times.


Potential Energy

Amount of stored energy.

any doubling of height will double the PE.


final answer units is Joules


Law of Conservation of Energy

Energy is not lost but rather transferred back and forth between KE and PE.

Given a fixed amount of total energy in a system, an increase will