Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual, Cat Version: UNIT 1 LAB EXAM STUDY GUIDE Flashcards


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1

Anatomy

The Study of the processes and functions of the body tissue and organs

2

What is in the right upper quadrant

right liver lobe

gallbladder

right kidney

portions of the stomach

small and large intestines

3

What is in the upper left quadrant

left lobe of liver

stomach

pancreas

left kidney

spleen

portions of the large intestines

4

Anterior or ventral

front

5

Posterior or dorsal

back

6

Lateral

Farther from the midline of the body

7

Distal

Away from the body

8

supine

laying on the back

9

prone

laying on the stomach

10

What are the two cavities in the ventral body cavity

Thoracic and abdominopelvic

11

What is the thoracic cavity divided into

pleural and pericardial

12

What does the pelvic cavity consist of

Urinary bladder

lower colon

rectum

uterus

overies

13

What are the organ systems

Integumentary

skeletal

muscular

nervous

endocrine

cardiovascular

lymphatic

respiratory

digestive

urinary

reproductive

14

What does the skin do

protects structures from injury, drying, and foreign organism

contains sensory nerves, has limited excretory and absorbing powers

regulates body temp

15

Epidermis

the outer skin layer

16

Dermis

"true skin" lies below the epidermis, and blends into deeper tissues

17

skin appendages

hair, nails, and sweat glans

18

What are bones made of

inorganic mineral salts

calcium

phosphorus

ossein (an organic substance)

19

what are the types of bones

long

short

flat

irregular

20

long bones

femur and humerus

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short bones

wrist and ankle bones

22

flat bones

skull, sternum, and scapula

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irregular

vertebrae, mandible, and pelvis bone

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Sutures

skull bones that are joined together and fixed in one position the seams where they join together

25

Sternum

an elongated flat bone, forming in the middle portion of the upper half of the chest wall in front

26

xiphoid process

located at inferior aspect of the sternum, serves as a land mark in the administration of CPR

27

What does the pelvic cavity consist of?

urinary bladder

lower colon

reproductive ogans

las portion of the GI track

28

What are the three types of muscles in the muscular system

striated

smooth

cardiac

29

striated muscles

also known as voluntary or skeletal muscles, fibers that move all the bones

30

Smooth muscles

involuntary or visceral muscles. these move out internal organs such as the GI track, blood vessels, and secretory ducts leading from the glands. We have no control over them

31

Cardiac muscles

striated in appearance but like the smooth muscles in action (the heart)

32

What are the two divisions of the Nervous system

Central nervous system

peripheral nervous system

33

What does the central nervous system consist of

brain

spinal cord

34

what does the peripheral nervous system consist of

12 cranial nerves; carry impulses between the brain, neck, and head

31 pairs of spinal nerves, which carry messages between the spinal cord, chest, abdomen, and extremities

35

how many glands make up the Endocrine system

nine

36

what are the glands of the Endocrine system

thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, ovaries, testes, pineal, and thymus

37

What does the pineal gland do?

located in the central portion of the brain, contributes to skin pigmentation called melatonin

38

how many chambers of the heart

four

39

what are the 4 chambers of the heart

atria and ventricles

40

what are is the atria

two upper chambers of the heart

41

where are the ventrical

the two lower chambers of the heart

42

what does the vena cavae do

deoxygenated blood enters the heart through the largest veins int he body

43

superior vena cava

drains blood from the upper portion of the body

44

inferior vena cava

carries blood from the lower part of the body

45

where does the vena cava bring the blood

brings deoxygenated blood through the right atrium

46

where does the right ventricle pump deoxygenated blood

to the lungs from the pulmonary vein

47

What are the three major types of blood vessels

Arteries

capillaries

vein

48

what are arteries

large blood vessels while lead blood away from the heart

49

what are capillaries?

microscopic vessels which carry nutrient rich, oxygenated blood from the arteries to the body cells

50

what are veins

are thinner than arteries. They conduct waste filled blood toward the heart from the tissues

51

What does the lymphatic system consist of

tonsils

spleen

thymus gland

lymph nodes

52

what does the spleen do

upper left quadrant; destroys all red blood cells, filters micro- organisms, produces antibodies and immunity, storage of blood

53

what do lymph nodes do?

contains lymphocytes and lymphatic channels which help fight disease by producing antibodies

54

where are major cites for lymph nodes

cervical, axillary, inguinal, mediastinal regions of the body

55

what does the pharynx divide into

larynx (voice box)

esophagus

56

what is the path way for inhaled air?

through the larynx to the trachea.

57

what is the trachea like?

a vertical tube about 4 1/2 inches long opened by 16-20 C-shaped rings of cartilage.

58

the trachea divides into two branches?

bronchi

59

where does the bronchi lead?

two separate lungs, like branches of trees

60

what are the three pairs of salivary glands

parotid, sublingual, submandibular

61

where is the parotid gland?

located next to the ears

62

where is the sublingual gland?

under the tongue

63

where is the submandibular gland?

at the lower jaw

64

what does the liver do?

located in upper right quad; manufactures bile ( bile breaks down fats) green fluid

65

what does the gallbladder do?

pear shaped sac under liver which stores and concentrates bile for later use ; yellow fluid

66

what does the pancreas do?`

produces a hormone called insulin, also plays a role in utilizing sugar

67

what does the urinary system consist of

two kidneys, two ureters, bladder, and urethra

68

what are the kidneys

two bean shaped organs behind the abdominal cavity on either side of the vertebral column

69

what are the ureters

they convey urine in the peristaltic waves from the kidney to the bladder

70

what is the urinary bladder?

hollow, muscular, sac in pelvic cavity. temporary reservoir for urine

71

what is the urethra?

membranous tube through which urine is discharged from the bladder

72

what does the female reproductive system consist of?

mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tues, uterus, vagina, and external genitalia

73

what are the ovaries?

a pair of small almond shaped organs located in the lower abdomen

74

what are the uterine tubes?

near each ovary is a duct, about 5.5 inches long called the fallopian tubes; the eggs travel to the uterus

75

what does the external genitalia consist of?

vulva; lips of the vagina, clitoris, urethral orifices, and peritoneum.

76

what does the male reproductive system consist of?

seminal vesicles, prostate gland, sperm duct, urethra, epididymis, testes, penis, and scrotum

77

what is the prostate gland?

glad that is at the base of the bladder which secretes fluid into the urethra during ejaculation

78

what is the epididymis?

tubes that are located on the top of each testis; they carry and store the sperm cells

79

what is the scrotum?

a sac enclosing the testes on the outside of the body