Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual, Cat Version: UNIT 1 LAB EXAM STUDY GUIDE Flashcards
The Study of the processes and functions of the body tissue and organs
What is in the right upper quadrant
right liver lobe
portions of the stomach
small and large intestines
What is in the upper left quadrant
left lobe of liver
portions of the large intestines
Anterior or ventral
Posterior or dorsal
Farther from the midline of the body
Away from the body
laying on the back
laying on the stomach
What are the two cavities in the ventral body cavity
Thoracic and abdominopelvic
What is the thoracic cavity divided into
pleural and pericardial
What does the pelvic cavity consist of
What are the organ systems
What does the skin do
protects structures from injury, drying, and foreign organism
contains sensory nerves, has limited excretory and absorbing powers
regulates body temp
the outer skin layer
"true skin" lies below the epidermis, and blends into deeper tissues
hair, nails, and sweat glans
What are bones made of
inorganic mineral salts
ossein (an organic substance)
what are the types of bones
femur and humerus
wrist and ankle bones
skull, sternum, and scapula
vertebrae, mandible, and pelvis bone
skull bones that are joined together and fixed in one position the seams where they join together
an elongated flat bone, forming in the middle portion of the upper half of the chest wall in front
located at inferior aspect of the sternum, serves as a land mark in the administration of CPR
What does the pelvic cavity consist of?
las portion of the GI track
What are the three types of muscles in the muscular system
also known as voluntary or skeletal muscles, fibers that move all the bones
involuntary or visceral muscles. these move out internal organs such as the GI track, blood vessels, and secretory ducts leading from the glands. We have no control over them
striated in appearance but like the smooth muscles in action (the heart)
What are the two divisions of the Nervous system
Central nervous system
peripheral nervous system
What does the central nervous system consist of
what does the peripheral nervous system consist of
12 cranial nerves; carry impulses between the brain, neck, and head
31 pairs of spinal nerves, which carry messages between the spinal cord, chest, abdomen, and extremities
how many glands make up the Endocrine system
what are the glands of the Endocrine system
thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, ovaries, testes, pineal, and thymus
What does the pineal gland do?
located in the central portion of the brain, contributes to skin pigmentation called melatonin
how many chambers of the heart
what are the 4 chambers of the heart
atria and ventricles
what are is the atria
two upper chambers of the heart
where are the ventrical
the two lower chambers of the heart
what does the vena cavae do
deoxygenated blood enters the heart through the largest veins int he body
superior vena cava
drains blood from the upper portion of the body
inferior vena cava
carries blood from the lower part of the body
where does the vena cava bring the blood
brings deoxygenated blood through the right atrium
where does the right ventricle pump deoxygenated blood
to the lungs from the pulmonary vein
What are the three major types of blood vessels
what are arteries
large blood vessels while lead blood away from the heart
what are capillaries?
microscopic vessels which carry nutrient rich, oxygenated blood from the arteries to the body cells
what are veins
are thinner than arteries. They conduct waste filled blood toward the heart from the tissues
What does the lymphatic system consist of
what does the spleen do
upper left quadrant; destroys all red blood cells, filters micro- organisms, produces antibodies and immunity, storage of blood
what do lymph nodes do?
contains lymphocytes and lymphatic channels which help fight disease by producing antibodies
where are major cites for lymph nodes
cervical, axillary, inguinal, mediastinal regions of the body
what does the pharynx divide into
larynx (voice box)
what is the path way for inhaled air?
through the larynx to the trachea.
what is the trachea like?
a vertical tube about 4 1/2 inches long opened by 16-20 C-shaped rings of cartilage.
the trachea divides into two branches?
where does the bronchi lead?
two separate lungs, like branches of trees
what are the three pairs of salivary glands
parotid, sublingual, submandibular
where is the parotid gland?
located next to the ears
where is the sublingual gland?
under the tongue
where is the submandibular gland?
at the lower jaw
what does the liver do?
located in upper right quad; manufactures bile ( bile breaks down fats) green fluid
what does the gallbladder do?
pear shaped sac under liver which stores and concentrates bile for later use ; yellow fluid
what does the pancreas do?`
produces a hormone called insulin, also plays a role in utilizing sugar
what does the urinary system consist of
two kidneys, two ureters, bladder, and urethra
what are the kidneys
two bean shaped organs behind the abdominal cavity on either side of the vertebral column
what are the ureters
they convey urine in the peristaltic waves from the kidney to the bladder
what is the urinary bladder?
hollow, muscular, sac in pelvic cavity. temporary reservoir for urine
what is the urethra?
membranous tube through which urine is discharged from the bladder
what does the female reproductive system consist of?
mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tues, uterus, vagina, and external genitalia
what are the ovaries?
a pair of small almond shaped organs located in the lower abdomen
what are the uterine tubes?
near each ovary is a duct, about 5.5 inches long called the fallopian tubes; the eggs travel to the uterus
what does the external genitalia consist of?
vulva; lips of the vagina, clitoris, urethral orifices, and peritoneum.
what does the male reproductive system consist of?
seminal vesicles, prostate gland, sperm duct, urethra, epididymis, testes, penis, and scrotum
what is the prostate gland?
glad that is at the base of the bladder which secretes fluid into the urethra during ejaculation
what is the epididymis?
tubes that are located on the top of each testis; they carry and store the sperm cells
what is the scrotum?
a sac enclosing the testes on the outside of the body