Chapter 20

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1
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George M. Pullman (BHATIA)

Builder of Pullman railroad cars who opposed union organization. After firing three union leaders, his actions caused a strike.

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Eugene V. Debs (ANDERSON)

He was the leader of the American Railway Union (ARU) who spearheaded the Pullman Strike. As the strike went on, Debs was charged with boycotting the rail lines, a crime that sent him to trial without a jury sentencing. He came out of jail and formed the American Socialist Party, running the presidential ticket five times. He felt that unions were useless and it would take this kind of radical reform to achieve justice for laborers.

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William Jennings Bryan (BHATIA)

Advocate of free silver who delievered a speech opposing the gold standard. After this speech, he became the youngest candidate to run for the presidency.

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William Randolph Hearst (BHATIA)

Head of the newspaper "Journal" which competed against Joseph Pulitzer's "World". This competition became known as yellow journalism.

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Joseph Pulitzer (BHATIA)

Head of the newspaper "World" which was involved in the yellow journalism competiton.

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Theodore Roosevelt (BHATIA)

An expansionist who later became a war hero in the Spanish American war, Theodore Roosevelt had ambitious foreign policy goals.

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People's (Populist) Party (ANDERSON)

This was a party created by farmers and laborers. They based their platform off of increased democracy and strove for the reform of banks and the equalization of railroad prices (among other things) in order to narrow the power gap between the wealthy and the poor.

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Farmers' Alliances (ANDERSON)

These were grassroots movements in the Midwest and Southern farming communities. They were meant to combat the crop-lein system and stop the ruinous cycle of farmer debt that arose due to farmers' need to borrow goods from stores and merchants at exorbitant rates. Women formed a considerable sector - 30% - of the groups, and often were supporters of woman suffrage. Most members were also religious and favored prohibition. This group helped form the basis of the Populist Party.

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Subtreasury System (ANDERSON)

In this system, farmers proposed to lay away surplus imperishable crops in federal houses. They would then be able to borrow from stores and merchants against this surplus crop, ending high interest rates and breaking the cycle of debt.

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Homestead Strike/Lockout (ANDERSON)

This was a strike that occurred at one of Carnegie's mills in Pennsylvania. In an attempt to control the whole steel industry, his company had refused to renew the contract of the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers (connected to the AFL). Mill workers, even non-unionized ones, cried out against the violation of the worker's right to regulate labor. The central issue in the struggle was whether the right to property (Carnagie) or the right to one's job (laborers) was supreme. In the end, the right to labor won.

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Pinkertons (ANDERSON)

This was an organization of mercenaries that sprang up to help protect strike-breakers (scabs) against angry strikers. They were hired by the company in which the strike was happening. Frick hired "Pinks" in an attempt to break the Homestead Lockout.

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Panic of 1893 (BHATIA)

A depression that laster for more than four years that cut the labor force by nearly half. This depression sent many people looking for jobs and relying on the Federal Government to help the economic situation.

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American Railway Union (ANDERSON)

Led by Eugene V. Debs, this organization pledged to unionize all railway workers, not limiting membership to skilled craftsmen as the AFL did. The ARU headed the Pullman Strike of 1894.

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Pullman Strike/Lockout (ANDERSON)

This occurred after the panic of 1893, when rail workers living in George Pullman's model town faced high wage cuts but no rent reductions. Many workers walked off the job; across America, switchmen did not work trains that had Pullman cars. Americans began to boycott Pullman cars, stopping trains that were pulling them and leaving them at the side of the rails. Finally, President Grover Cleveland stopped the strike by sending out troops to intervene.

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Coxey's Army (ANDERSON)

Masses of Americans left unemployed by the 1893 depression marched on Washington in the spring of 1894, hoping to force the government to begin public works projects and end unemployment. They were led by Jacob Coxey, an unlikely friend of laborers who was a millionare. This movement brought the workers' plight into perspective.

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Expansionism (ANDERSON)

This was the policy favored by many Americans that championed the extension of American influence to a global scale. America pursued spheres of influence not only in the Western Hemisphere but also in Asia, following in the footsteps of European nations.

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Annexation of Hawaii (GRIGGS)

In 1893 American sugar business caused a rebellion in Hawaii and overthrew the queen. The sugar business wanted Congress to annex Hawaii to avoid paying high tariffs. In 1898 while the U.S. was acquiring land after the Spanish American war the US also annexed Hawaii. This was an example of growing American imperialism and how intertwined American business interests were with our foreign policy.

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Boxer Rebellion (ANDERSON)

This was a crusade against Christianity in China led by a secret society called the Boxers. They caused widespread violence against converted Chinese, missionaries, nuns, preachers, and their families. (1900) Their actions sparked American military involvement in August 1900.

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Open Door Policy (ANDERSON)

This policy, largely negotiated by John Hay (1899-1900), secured America a place in the Chinese trade market. Hay had to use shrewd diplomacy to get European leaders to agree to American involvement in Asian trade.

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Spanish-American War (ANDERSON)

This war had two objectives: get Spain out of the Western Hemisphere and obtain the Philippines. A rebellion had been dragging on in Cuba against Spanish rule, and America intervened on Cuba's side to evict Spain. Spain also controlled the Philippines; America wanted to obtain this as a stepping stone to Chinese trade. America won, and annexed Cuba, Costa Rica, Guam, and the Philippines as a result. The war gave Americans a cause to unify around after decades of internal strife.

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President William McKinley

...

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U.S.S. Maine (GRIGGS)

An American ship that was sunk in Cuba killing more than 200 crewmen. What caused the explosion is not known but yellow journalism inflamed the the US people. Angry Americans blamed Spain and it became the rallying cry for the start of the Spanish American War.

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Rough Riders (GRIGGS)

A regiment formed by Teddy Roosevelt made up of Ivy League polo players and cowboys Roosevelt knew. While awaiting orders in Florida they would put on daily rodeos for the press.

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Battle of San Juan Hill (GRIGGS)

Decisive battle of the Spanish American War and its most famous. The battle in which the Rough Riders had their greatest victory and won fame for them and Teddy Roosevelt.

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Imperialism (ANDERSON)

This was the American wish to expand their influence overseas as the European nations had done. Americans were divided on this issue, but the wish to expand markets and spread Christianity to "heathen peoples" won the day. Also, Social Darwinism ruled and made people believe that Anglo Saxons (especially Americans) were the superior race and were meant to rule the world.

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"white man's burden" (Griggs)

A justification of American imperialism based on social darwinism and the belief that anglo saxons were racially superior and ideally suited to control non-whites. The phrase comes from a poem by Rudyard Kipling written at the time America took over the Philippines.

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Platt Amendment(GRIGGS)

After the Spanish American War US did not allow Cuba its full independence. America dictated the terms of the Cuban constitution which included the Platt Amendment. This was a series of provisions giving the U.S. the ability to intervene to protect Cuba's independence and to oversee Cuba's debt so that European creditors could not intervene in Cuba. This was another example of US empire building.

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Teller Amendment (GRIGGS)

Amendment to Spanish American War resolution of Congress that made it so the US military in Cuba could not be used to annex Cuba. Instead, Cuba had to be left to the control of the Cuban people.

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Treaty of Paris (1898) (ANDERSON)

In this treaty, Spain signed Cuba, Guam, Costa Rica, and the Philippines over to America.

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"splendid little war!" (ANDERSON)

This is what Secretary of State John Hay called the Spanish-American War because it unified Americans, gave America an advantageous territory for Chinese trade (the Philippines), and gave America supremacy in the Western Hemisphere. America had followed through on both the Monroe Doctrine and the Open Door Policy.