Introduction to Pathophysiology

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1

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

- the study of functional or physiologic changes in the body that result from disease process.

2

PATHOLOGY

- the laboratory study of cell & tissue changes associated with disease.

3

DISEASE

- a deviation from the normal structure or function of any part, organ system or from a state of wellness.

4

HOMEOSTASIS

- the maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment regardless of external changes.

5

DISEASE PREVENTION

  • maintain routine vaccination programs
  • participation in screening programs
  • community health programs
  • regular routine doctor visits
6

MEDICAL HISTORY

  • current / prior illnesses
  • allergies
  • hospitalizations
  • treatment
  • specific difficulties
  • any type of therapy or drugs
  • * prescription
  • * nonprescription
  • * herbal items, including food supplements
7

NEW DEVELOPMENTS & TRENDS

  • constant updating of information & knowledge
  • improved diagnostic tests
  • development of more effective drugs
  • new technology
  • extensive research in efforts to prevent, control, or cure many disorders
8

GROSS LEVEL

- organ or system level

9

MICROSCOPIC LEVEL

- cellular level

10

BIOPSY

- excision of very small amounts of living tissue

11

AUTOPSY

- examination of the body and organs after death

12

DIAGNOSIS

- identification of a specific disease

13

ETIOLOGY (CAUSE)

-causative factors in a particular disease

14

PREDISPOSING FACTORS

- tendencies that promote development of a disease in an individual

(age, gender, inherited factors, occupational expose, or certain dietary practices)

15

PATHOGENESIS

- development of the disease or the sequence of events involved in the tissue changes related to the specific disease process

16

ACUTE

- a short-term illness that develops very quickly with marked signs such as high fever or severe pain

(appendicitis)

17

CHRONIC

  • often milder
  • develops gradually
  • persists for a long time
  • causes more permanent tissue damage

(rheumatoid arthritis)

18

SUBCLINICAL STATE

  • pathologic changes occur
  • no obvious manifestations are exhibited by patient

(kidney damage may progress to an advanced stage of renal failure before symptoms are manifested)

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LATENT (silent) STATE

- no symptoms or clinical signs evident

20

INCUBATION PERIOD

- time between exposure to the microorganism and the onset of signs & symptoms

(may last for a day or so, or may be prolonged-days or weeks) *disease agent communicable *

21

PRODROMAL PERIOD

  • early development of a disease
  • signs nonspecific or absent

(fatigue, loss of appetite, or headache)

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MANIFESTATIONS

- clinical evidence or effects, signs & symptoms of disease

23

SYNDROME

  • collection of signs & symptoms
  • often affects more than one organ
24

REMISSIONS

- manifestations of the disease subside or are absent

(rheumatoid arthritis typically has periods when pain & swelling are minimal)

25

PRECIPITATING FACTOR

- condition that triggers an acute episode

(angina attack caused by shoveling snow on a very cold day)

26

COMPLICATIONS

- new secondary or additional problems that arise after the original disease begins

(developing congestive heart failure following a heart attack)

27

THERAPY (therapeutic interventions)

- treatment measures used to promote recovery or slow the progress of a disease

(surgery, drugs, physiotherapy, alternative treatment, or behavior modification)

28

SEQUELAE

- unwanted outcomes of primary condition

(paralysis following recovery from a stroke)

29

CONVALESCENCE

- period of recovery, return to the normal healthy state

(may last for several days or months)

30

PROGNOSIS

- probability for recovery or other outcomes

31

REHABILITATION

- maximizing function of diseased tissues

32

EPIDEMIOLOGY

- science of identifying the causative factors & tracking the pattern or occurrence of disease

33

MORBIDITY

- indicates the disease rates (# of people) with a disease within a group

34

MORTALITY

- indicates the number of deaths resulting from a particular disease within a group

35

EPIDEMICS

- occur when there are a higher than expected number of cases of an infections disease within a given area

36

PANDEMICS

- involve higher numbers of cases in many regions of the globe

37

OCCURRENCE of DISEASE

- tracked by incidence and prevalence

38

INCIDENCE

- incidence indicates the number of new cases in a given population within a specified time period

39

PREVALENCE

- number of new and old or existing cases within a specific population and time period

40

COMMUNICABLE DISEASE

- infections that can spread from one person to another

41

NOTIFIABLE or REPORTABLE DISEASES

- diseases that must be reported by the physician to certain designated authorities

42

AUTOPSY or POSTMORTEM EXAMINATION

- performed after death to determine the exact cause of death, or determine the course of the illness and the effectiveness of treatment

43

ATROPHY

- decrease in the size of cells, results in reduced tissue mass

(the shrinkage of skeletal muscle that occurs when a limb is immobilized in a cast for several weeks)

44

HYPERTROPHY

- increase in the size of individual cells, resulting in an enlarged tissue mass

(consistent exercise on skeletal muscle, leading to an enlarged muscle mass)

45

HYPERPLASIA

- increased number of cells resulting in an enlarged tissue mass

46

METAPLASIA

- mature cell type is replaced by a different mature cell type

47

DYSPLASIA

- cells vary in size and shape within a tissue

48

ANAPLASIA

- undifferentiated with variable nuclear and cell structures

(characteristic of cancer & is the basis for grading the aggressiveness of a tumor)

49

NEOPLASIA

- "new growth"- commonly called a tumor

50

APOPTOSIS

- programmed cell death, a normal occurrence in the body

51

ISCHEMIA

- deficit of oxygen in the cells

52

HYPOXIA

- reduced oxygen in tissues;

53

PHYSICAL DAMAGE

  • excessive heat or cold
  • radiation exposure
54

MECHANICAL DAMAGE

- pressure or tearing of tissue

55

CHEMICAL TOXINS

  • exogenous: from environment
  • endogenous: from inside the body
56

MICROORGANISMS

- living organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye

(bacteria / viruses)

57

ABNORMAL METABOLITIES

  • genetic disorders
  • inborn errors of metabolism
  • altered metaolism
58

NECROSIS

- group of cells die

59

LIQUEFACTION NECROSIS

- dead cells liquefy under because of release of cell enzymes

60

COAGULATIVE NECROSIS

- cell proteins are altered or denatured -coagulation

61

FAT NECROSIS

- fatty tissue is broken down into fatty acids

62

CASEOUS NECROSIS

  • form of coagulation necrosis
  • thick, yellowish, "cheesy" substance forms

(tuberculosis-TB)

63

INFARCTION

- area of dead cells resulting from lack of oxygen

64

GANGRENE

- area of necrotic tissue that has been invaded by bacteria

65

HEALTH

- physical, mental and social well-being