Embalming: History, Theory, and Practice, Fifth Edition: Embalming - Conditions & Treatments Review Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 9 years ago by crschroeder2
1,020 views
updated 9 years ago by crschroeder2
Subjects:
mortuary science; embalming, medical, allied health services, forensic medicine
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:

1

What can immediate allergic reaction to a drug cause?

tissues appear swollen, discolored skin surface, possible skin eruptions

2

What can result from liver failure?

edema (ascites); edema of lower extremities

increase in ammonia in the tissues (neutralizes formaldehyde)

purges caused by rupture of esophageal veins

gastrointestinal bleeding; fluid loss; possible purge

hair loss

jaundice

3

What can result from renal failure?

increase in ammonia in the tissues

edema of tissues

gastrointestinal bleeding

pulmonary edema

congestive heart failure

discoloration of the skin (sallow color)

uremic pruritus of the skin

4

What can result from damage to blood vessels?

skin hemorrhage (ecchymosis aka bruise, purpural hemorrhage)

5

What can result from damage to the walls?

breakdown of the skin; skin-slip often present

6

What can cause difficult tissue firming?

protein degeneration

ammonia buildup in the tissues which neutralizes formaldehyde

presence of edema

7

Gas Causing Distension: Subcutaneous emphysema

Cause: puncture of lung or pleural sac

Treatment: gas will escape through incisions; establish good arterial preservation; channel tissues after arterial injection to release gases

8

Gas Causing Distension: True Tissue Gas

Cause: Anaerobic bacteria

Treatment: Use of special "tissue gas" arterial solutions; localized hypodermic injection of cavity fluid; channel tissues to release gases

9

Gas Causing Distension: Gas Gangrene

Cause: Anaerobic bacteria

Treatment: strong arterial solutions; local hypodermic injection of cavity chemical

10

Gas Causing Distension: Decomposition

Cause: bacterial breakdown of body tissues; autolytic breakdown of body tissues

Treatment: proper strong chemical in sufficient amounts by arterial injection; hypodermic and surface treatments; channel to release gases

11

Gas Causing Distension: Air from embalming apparatus

Cause: air injected by embalming machine

Treatment: channel after arterial injection to release gases

12

Contents of Hollow Viscera that must be Treated: Lungs, Trachea, Bonchi

blood, edema, purulent material, gases

13

Contents of Hollow Viscera that must be Treated: Stomach

hydrochloric acid, undigested food, blood, gases

14

Contents of Hollow Viscera that must be Treated: Small Intestine

gases, undigested foods, partially digested foods, blood

15

Contents of Hollow Viscera that must be Treated: Large Intestine

gases, fecal material, blood

16

Contents of Hollow Viscera that must be Treated: Urinary bladder

urine, pustular material, blood`

17

Contents of Hollow Viscera that must be Treated: Gallbladder

bile

18

Contents of Hollow Viscera that must be Treated: Pelvis of the kidney

urine, pustular material, blood

19

Contents of Hollow Viscera that must be Treated: Heart

blood

20

Contents of Hollow Viscera that must be Treated: Inferior vena cava, portal veins

blood

21

Types of Purge:Stomach

from: nose/mouth

description: liquids, semisolids, dark brown "coffee ground" appearance, odor, acid pH

22

Types of Purge: Lungs

from: nose/mouth

description: frothy; any blood present is red in color, little odor

23

Types of Purge: Brain

from: nose/ear/eyelids

description: gases can move into tissues of the eye, fractures can cause blood to purge from the ears, creamy white semisolid brain matter may exit through a fracture or the nasal passage

24

Nine Abdominal Regions

Right Hypochondriac, Epigastric, Left Hypochondriac

Right Lumbar, Umbilical, Left Lumbar

Right Inguinal (Iliac), Hypogastric, Left Inguinal (Iliac)

25

Preservative Demand of the Muscle Tissues During Rigor

Prerigor - great adsorption of preservative

Rigor - little absorption of preservative

after rigor - great preservative demand

26

Side effect of body in rigor

degree of rigor varies in the different muscle groups (more muscle = harder rigor)

tissue pH varies throughout the body

there is a lack of uniform distribution of fluid

tissues vary in preservative demand

27

Antemortem blood discolorations: Intravascular

hypostasis (blue-black discoloration)

result of carbon monoxide poisoning (cherry red coloring)

capillary congestion (hypostatic, active, or passive)

28

Antemortem blood discolorations: Extravascular

ecchymosis (large bruise caused by escape of blood into tissues)

purpura (flat medium-sized hemorrhage beneath the skin surface)

Petechia (small pinpoint skin hemorrhage)

Hematoma (swollen blood filled area within the skin - blood blister)

29

Postmortem blood discolorations: Intravascular

livor mortis

30

Postmortem blood discolorations: Extravascular

postmortem stain

tardieu spots

31

Unnatural Conditions Related to Discolorations: Burns

first degree - redness of skin

second degree - blistering and redness

third degree - charred tissue

32

Postmortem blood discolorations: CO Poisoning

bright red color to the blood

low blood viscosity, intense livor

rapid postmortem staining

33

Postmortem blood discolorations: Drowning

low blood viscosity, intense livor

head faced downward, livor and stain

possible abrasions and bruising

34

Postmortem blood discolorations: Electrocution

point of contact, burn marks can bepresent

35

Postmortem blood discolorations: Gunshot Wounds

eyelids can show ecchymosis, swelling of eye area when injury is to face or head

36

Postmortem blood discolorations: Hanging

intensive livor in facial tissues; some capillary rupture showing petechial discolorations; no blood present in facial tissues

37

Postmortem blood discolorations: Mutilation

loss of blood - little livor mortis

ecchymosis and bruising at affected areas

38

Postmortem blood discolorations: Poisons

variable - from generalized conditions such as jaundice and cyanosis to localized discolorations such as caustic burns and petechiae

39

Postmortem blood discolorations: Refridgeration

low blood viscosity, intense livor

postmortem stain speeded

dehydration of mucous membranes and skin surface after long exposure to cold air

40

Problems Associated with Dehydration: darkened skin

corrected by cosmetic application; use fluid dyes to ensure fluid distribution to all body areas

41

Problems Associated with Dehydration: "flaking" or peeling of skin, especially in facial areas

apply massage cream and then clean with a solvent to remove all loose skin; mortuary cream cosmetics further reduce skin drying

42

Problems Associated with Dehydration: firm feel to the skin

skin feels embalmed; additional dye helps to trace the distribution of fluid

43

Problems Associated with Dehydration: desiccated lips, eyelids, or fingertips

may need correction with restorative waxes; tissue building; opaque cosmetics needed to hide discolorations

44

Problems Associated with Dehydration: thickened blood

may be diluted with a preinjection fluid; use right internal jugular as drainage point; inject from the carotids to push arterial coagula toward the lower extremities

45

Problems Associated with Dehydration: dehydration created by the embalmer; wrinkled lips, fingertips; facial areas

use correct dilutions for arterial and humectant fluids; areas may be filled out with tissue builder after embalming

46

Problems Associated with Dehydration: dehydration of large facial area from embalming and passe of air over body

use massage cream on exposed areas prior to cosmetic application; if skin is discolored, opaque cosmetics will be needed; cream cosmetics further reduce dehydration; fingertips and facial areas may also be treated with tissue builder to reduce dehydration

47

Types of Edema: ascites

edema of the abdominal (or peritoneal) cavity

treatment: aspiration and injection of undiluted cavity fluid; preembalming draining via trocar or drainage tube; reaspiration and reinjection

48

Types of Edema: hydrothorax

edema of the pleural cavity

treatment: aspiration; injection of cavity fluid; careful draining prior to arterial injection

49

Types of Edema: hydrocephalus

edema of the cranial cavity

treatment: drain in infant via ethmoid foramen; inject cavity fluid via ethmoid foramen

50

Types of Edema: hydropericardium

edema of the pericardial sac surrounding the heart

treatment: aspiration and injection of undiluted cavity fluid

51

Types of Edema: hydrocele

edema in the tunica vaginalis testis of the male scrotum

treatment: channel with trocar to drain into abdominal cavity; inject via trocar undiluted cavity fluid; surface coating with autopsy gel; use of plastic garments and embalming powder

52

Types of Edema: anasarca

generalized edema

treatment: strong arterial solutions; hypodermic and surface embalming; plastic garments; gravitation; puncture and drain

53

Types of Edema: pitting

edema in tissue spaces, between cells

treatment: may be gravitated; use strong arterial solutions; may be punctured and drained; use plastic garments to protect from leakage

54

Types of Edema: of hands or legs

use sectional embalming

55

Types of Edema: of face

use restricted cervical injection

56

Preservatives

aldehydes

57

Alcohols

-ol

58

Coal Tar Derivatives

Phenol

59

Phenol aka

Carbolic Acid

60

Inorganic Salts

Natron

61

Supplemental Germicides aka Disinfectants

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds - Zephiran aka Benzalkonium Chloride

aldehydes

-ols

62

Anticoagulates aka Water Conditioning Agents

sodium

63

Dyes

Eosine, Ponceau Red, and Erythrosine

64

Deodrants

Oils & Benzaldehyde

65

Oil of Wintergreen aka

Methyl salicylate

66

Vehicles

water & alcohol

67

Surfactants

sulf-

68

Humectans

Sorbitol, Glycerine, Glycol, & Lanolin (sheep fat)

69

Buffers

always exist in pairs, one acid and one base

70

Buffers

Sodium, Bo-, and Citrates

71

Mold Preventative Agents

para-

72

Hardening Compound

Plaster, Alum, Perlite (sawdust), clay, styrofoam

73

aneurysm

bulge in a blood vessel

74

what percentage of body weight does total body water constitute?

55 to 60%

75

Under what conditions is edema said to be established?

when there is a 10% increase in total body water

76

The term used to describe an agent having an affinity for metallic ions such as calcium and magnesium.

chelating agents

77

2 main classes of chemotherapeutic agents?

cytotoxic & antimetabolite

78

nephro

kidney

79

term describing the physical wasting with loss of weight and muscle mass caused by disease

cachexia

80

problem caused by use of corticosteroids

decrease in cell permeability - use pre-injection chemical

81

body's main center of detoxification

liver

82

term used to describe a blister filled with serous fluid which is usually caused by gas

bleb

83

with regard to renal failure, how much more preservative chemical than normal is needed to achieve preservation?

6

84

ideal rate of flow

10-15 minutes per gallon

85

general pressure setting

5-20 pounds

86

invasive devices should be left in during embalming because

swelling and discoloration of area can occur

87

anastomosis

connection of normally separated parts or spaces so they intercommunicate

88

In an autopsied case, what are the ideal vessels to use for injection of the lower extremities?

iliac

89

In an autopsied case, what are the ideal vessels to use for injection of the upper extremities?

subclavian

90

inject which side of head first

left

91

Regarding delayed embalming, what main factor brings about the body's increased fluid need?

breakdown of tissues

92

In cases of delayed embalming or decomposition, what is the recommended arterial fluid index?

25 or higher

93

What is one occasion when cavity treatment is not employed?

donation to medical school

94

What is bile?

A bitter, alkaline, brownish-yellow or greenish-yellow fluid that is secreted by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and discharged into the duodenum and aids in the emulsification, digestion, and absorption of fats.

95

Order of digestion

stomach, pylorus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum,cecum, ascending colon, traverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum

96

What is the function of the kidney?

extract waste from blood, balance body fluids, form urine, and aid in other important functions of the body

97

C x V = C’ x V’ equation

...

98

Examples of sublimation

...

99

Hepatic vein continues as…

...

100

Vessels of Scarpa’s Triangle

...

101

Purpose of adding EDTA

...

102

OSHA Action Level

...

103

Time frame for hemolysis

...

104

Def of antisepsis

...

105

Type of gangrene with ischemic necrosis

...

106

What is ischemia?

...

107

OSHA PEL

...

108

Formation of aldehyde

...

109

Largest number of bones in vertebral column are classified as

...

110

Antipolymerization agent for formaldehyde

...

111

Bifurcation of the antihelix

crus

112

Polymerization of formaldehyde is inhibited by the addition of:

Methyl alcohol

113

Polymerization of formaldehyde is inhibited by the addition of:

H-CHO

114

buffers

Embalming chemicals that work to help stabilize acid-base balance within embalming solutions and in tissues.

115

gas gangrene

Necrosis in a wound; anaerobic, from Clostridium Perfringens.

116

Forms base of femoral triangle(anterior superior iliac spine to pubic tubercle).

inguinal ligament

117

TWA

.75ppm/8 hours

118

Hemolysis

Causes postmortem stain during the embalming process.

119

Carbohydrates

First body compounds to decompose.

120

Clauderus

Embalming without evisceration.

121

Syncope

death beginning at the heart

122

Malpighi

father of histology

123

Ruysch

father of embalming

124

Hunter

Adductor's or Hunter's Canal

125

holmes

Father of US Embalming

126

harvey

Credited with discovery of circulation.

127

amino acids

First products of decomposition.

128

gannal

Made embalming available to the public.

129

Hemolysis

Swelling and bursting of red blood cells.

130

normal blood pH range

7.3-7.4

131

acid pH range

1.3-6.1

132

base pH range

7.6-13.3

133

neutral pH range

7.0

134

putrefaction

the decomposition of anaerobic bacteria is

135

decay

the decomposition of aerobic bacteria is

136

postmortem caloricity

the temporary rise in body temp after death is called

137

rigor mortis is detrimental to the embalming process because it

retards fluid distribution

138

lining of the trachea and larynx

in the usual case the first organ to decompose is the

139

the anaerobic decomposition of proteins results in

putrefaction

140

The primary flaccidity stages of rigor mortis the pH of the muscular tissue is

alkaline pH