Psych 2700 Ch. 11 Flashcards


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1

Self-esteem refers an overall evaluation of your worth.

true

2

Dispositional traits are also referred to as “life stories.”

false

3

Erikson and Freud both view adult personality as being primarily determined by experiences during infancy and early childhood.

false

4

According to the psychometric approach, personality can be characterized as a set of distinct traits on which people differ.

true

5

Big five traits include neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness.

true

6

When a child says, “That’s me” when looking in a mirror, they are illustrating a looking-glass self.

false

7

Babies with difficult temperaments tend to be very passive and seldom cry.

false

8

Behavioral inhibition is the tendency to be shy and restrained.

true

9

The ability to sustain one’s attention is called effortful control.

false

10

The “ideal self” is who we wish others would be

false

11

Personality is thought to “gel” during infancy.

false

12

Most adolescents experience a dip in self-esteem that tends to rebound in later adolescence.

true

13

Foreclosure status is characterized by no crisis, and no commitment.

false

14

The identity moratorium status is characterized by active exploration of identity and possible crisis.

true

15

The main developmental trend in vocational choice during the adolescent years involves decreasing realism.

true

16

Older individuals tend to adjust their ideal selves to be more in line with their real selves.

true

17

In collectivist societies, the individual comes before the group.

false

18

Big Five personality traits tend to change dramatically following adolescence.

false

19

Erikson’s psychosocial crisis of generativity versus stagnation concerns a person’s life review typically conducted in very old age.

false

20

Successful aging requires engagement in society.

false

21

A specific evaluation of your self-worth defines the concept of self-_____.

esteem

22

The situational-specific ways in which people adapt to their roles is referred to as _____ adaptations

characteristic

23

Unique life stories that we construct about our past and future are called narrative _____.

identities

24

McCrae and Costa developed the _____ trait theory of personality.

Big Five

25

Albert Bandura is BEST associated with the _____ theory approach to personality development.

social learning

26

Cooley used the term _____ self in discussing the fact that self-concept is heavily influenced by the responses of others.

looking-glass

27

Thomas and Chess characterized infants who were even-tempered and happy as having an _____ temperament.

easy

28

Thomas and Chess characterized infants who were highly irritable and irregular in habit as having a _____ temperament.

difficult

29

_____ affectivity is the tendency for an individual to be easily frustrated, sad, or irritable.

Negativity

30

_____ identity status is characterized by no commitment made and no crisis experienced.

Diffusion

31

_____ identity status is characterized by both commitment made and crisis experienced.

Identity achievement

32

People in _____ cultures define themselves in terms of group membership and place great emphasis on group goals.

collectivist

33

Erikson’s first psychosocial stage involves a crisis of _____ versus _____.

trust; mistrust

34

Erikson characterized adolescence as involving a crisis of _____ versus _____.

identity; role confusion

35

The final of Erikson’s psychosocial stages involves the crisis of _____ versus _____.

integrity; despair

36

According to Erikson, most middle-age people are dealing with a crisis of _____ versus stagnation.

generativity

37

Levinson is BEST associated with his belief in a _____ crisis.

midlife

38

Many researchers have suggested that the best strategy for coping with aging involves selective _____ with compensation.

optimization

39

Atchley referred to the retirement period characterized by a relish for one’s newfound freedom as being the _____ phase of retirement.

honeymoon

40

_____ theory argues that successful aging involves a withdrawal from society.

Disengagement