Issues and Trends in Nursing: Essential Knowledge for Today and Tomorrow: NSG 403 Midterm Flashcards


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1

The founder of professional nursing in England.

Nightingale, (Florence)

Chapter 01

2

Purported to be the first educated nurse in the United States, a graduate of the New England Hospital for Women and Children in Boston.

Richards, Linda

Chapter 01

3

A public health nurse who founded Henry Street Settlement House to provide home nursing care to the immigrant populations on the lower east side of New York.

Wald, Lilian

Chapter 01

4

What was the third area a nurse graduate could find employment by the 19th Century?

Public Health Nursing

Chapter 01

5

What era did nurses form an organized group?

Christian era.

Chapter 01

6

Published in 1923, this report recommended that nursing education develop educational standards, schools of nursing adopt a primary focus on education and be moved to universities, and nurse educators receive advanced education.

Goldmark Report

Chapter 01

7

Developed the concept for associate degree nursing programs.

Montag, Mildred

Chapter 01

8

The advancement of what led to the identification of disease causing organisms?

Microscope

Chapter 01

9

Between the military nurses and the Civil War nurses, which two were affiliated with the American Red Cross?

Jane Delano and Clara Barton

Chapter 01

10

Women with some educational background who were selected by the church to provide care to the sick.

Deaconesses

Chapter 01

11

The first African American graduate nurse.

Mahoney, Mary

Chapter 01

12

American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools of Nursing

Chapter 01

A national nursing organization founded in 1893 to elevate the standards of nursing education; later became the National League for Nursing for Nursing Education, and ultimately, the National League for Nursing (NLN).

13

Bolton Act of 1942

Chapter 01

Legislation that created the U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps, a program subsidized by the federal government and designed to quickly prepare nurses to meet the needs of the armed forces, civilian and government hospitals, and war industries.

14

Nursing Training School of Women’s Hospital of Philadelphia

Chapter 01

Established in 1872, reputed to be the first permeant school of nursing in the United States.

15

Nurses’ Association Alumnae of the United States and Canada

Chapter 01

Originally founded in 1896 with the intent of achieving licensure for nurses; became the American Nurses Association (ANA).

16

St. Thomas’ Hospital

Chapter 01

A hospital in London where Florence Nightingale established the Nightingale School of Nursing.

17

Accreditation

Chapter 02

A process by which an institution's (e.g. school of nursing's) programs, policies, and practices are reviewed by an external accrediting body to determine whether professional standards are being met.

18

American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN)

Chapter 02

A professional organization in nursing that serves baccalaureate nursing and higher degree nursing education programs by influencing the quality of nursing education and practice through research, advocacy efforts, policy making, development of quality educational standards and indicators, and faculty development.

19

American Nurses Association (ANA)

Chapter 02

A professional organization for nurses that develops various standards of nursing practice and promotes change through policy development.

20

Apprenticeship Model

Chapter 02

A model of nursing education that was prevalent during the first half of the 20th century where student nurses learned nursing practice by providing service to hospitals.

21

Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE)

Chapter 02

Affiliated with the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, this commission is an accrediting body for baccalaureate and higher degree nursing education programs.

22

Curriculum

Chapter 02

The overall structure of learning experiences within nursing education programs that reflects a school of nursing's mission and philosophy, program outcomes, course of study, and program evaluation methods.

23

Instruction

Chapter 02

Teaching and learning strategies and experiences faculty and students engage in to achieve the elements of a curriculum.

24

Mobility Programs

Chapter 02

Nursing programs that facilitate the seamless articulation or transition from one degree in nursing to another degree (e.g., LPN to RN, ADN to BSN, ADN to MSN, BSN to PhD).

25

National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission (NLNAC)

Chapter 02

Affiliated with the National League for Nursing, this commission is an accrediting body for all types of nursing education programs.

26

National League for Nursing Education (NLNE)

Chapter 02

A professional organization in nursing that fostered excellence in nursing education by supporting nursing education research, engaging in policy making and advocacy efforts related to nursing education, and promoting faculty development. It was the precursor to the National League for Nursing.

27

Nightingale schools

Chapter 02

Schools of nursing developed by Florence Nightingale that promoted student nurses learning the theory and practice of nursing outside of hospital control.

28

Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT)

Chapter 03

An interactive testing format used on the NCLEX-RN to adjust the type of question and level of testing difficulty based on the test taker's previous response. In the NCLEX-RN examination, the testing continues until the student either achieves a consistent level of test item difficulty that indicates a satisfactory performance level and passing of the examination, does not achieve a consistent level of testing difficulty required to indicate a satisfactory performance level and thus fails the examination, or completes all of the test items on the examination or time expires on the test.

29

National Council Licensing Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN)

Chapter 03

This examination must be taken by all graduates of diploma, associate degree, and baccalaureate degree nursing programs prior to a license being issues. Successful completion of the NCLEX-RN is a requirement for practice as a registered nurse.

30

National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN)

Chapter 03

The body given the task of providing a means to ensure that those who are licensed to practice as nurses are "safe" in terms of their knowledge base.

31

Test plan

Chapter 03

A blueprint for the licensing examination that outlines the examination's content areas and the percentage of questions devoted to each content area.

32

Certification

Chapter 04

A designation earned by a person to ensure that he or she is qualified to perform a task or job.

33

License

Chapter 04 & 16

Permission to engage in an activity; a professional license allows the holder to engage in a specific activity for compensation.

34

Licensure

Chapter 04 & 16

The process by which a state or governmental agency grants permission to an individual to engage in a given profession for compensation.

35

Mutual Recognition Model

Chapter 04 & 16

A model that allows a nurse to have one license in his or her state of residency with the ability to practice (electronically or physically) across state lines if there are no restrictions on his or her license and that person acknowledges that he or she is subject to each state's practice laws.

36

Nurse Licensure Compact (NLC)

Chapter 04

A form of interstate compact specific to nurse licensure that provides an agreement between two or more states for the purpose of recognizing nurse licensure between and among a group of participating states. States must enter into an NLC in order to achieve mutual recognition.

37

Nurse Practice Act

Chapter 04 & 16

A state statute that defines the legal limits for the practice of nursing within that state and explicitly identifies the requirements for licensure.

38

Standard of Care

Chapter 04 & 16

The degree of care, expertise, and judgment exercised by a reasonable person under same or similar circumstances.

39

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)

Chapter 09

The health services research arm of the US Department of Health and Human Services, complementing the biomedical research mission of its sister agency, the National Institutes of Health. AHRQ is a home to research centers that specialize in major areas of healthcare research such as quality improvement and patient safety, outcomes and effectiveness of care, clinical practice, and technology assessment, and healthcare organization and delivery system.

40

Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)

Chapter 09

A US federal agency that administers Medicare, Medicaid, and the State Children's Health Insurance Program. It provides information for healthcare professionals, regional governments, and consumers in regard to how an organization meets the standards set by the CMS.

41

Core Measures

Chapter 09

Used to measure the quality of care provided by a hospital and its providers for clients with a specific diagnosis such as heart failure, pneumonia, or acute myocardial infarction. These measures are determined by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), The Joint Commission, and the American Hospital Association.

42

Institute of Healthcare Improvement (IHI)

Chapter 09

A not-for-profit organization seeking to improve health care around the world. IHI's work is funded primarily through fee-based program offerings and services, and also through the support of a group of foundations, companies, and individuals. The IHI conducts the 5 Million Lives Campaign.

43

Institute of Medicine (IOM)

Chapter 09

Provides a vital service by working outside the framework of government to ensure scientifically informed analysis and guidance. The IOM's mission is to serve as an advisor to the nation to improve health. The IOM provides unbiased, evidence-based, and authoritative information and advice concerning health and science policy to policy makers, professionals, and leaders in every sector of society, and to the public at large.

44

The Joint Commission

Chapter 09

This is the nation's predominant standards-setting and accrediting body in health care. Their comprehensive accreditation process evaluates an organization's compliance with quality and safety standards and other accreditation requirements.

45

Leapfrog Group

Chapter 09

A voluntary program aimed at mobilizing employer purchasing power to alert the US health industry on "leaps" in healthcare safety, quality, and customer value so they will be recognized and rewarded. Among other initiatives, this works with its employer members to encourage transparency and easy access to healthcare information as well as providing rewards for hospitals that have a proven record of high-quality care.

46

Magnet Status

Chapter 09

A designation by the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) that recognizes healthcare organizations that provide nursing excellence.

47

National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI)

Chapter 09

The ANA established this in 1998; it is maintained by the Kansas University Medical Center School of Nursing. Participating hospitals use the database to collect and report unit-specific data. Members receive relevant national comparative data and annual trended comparisons. Nursing-sensitive indicators reflect the structure, process, and outcomes of nursing care.

48

Pay-for-Performance

Chapter 09

An emerging movement in healthcare insurance. Providers under this arrangement are rewarded for meeting pre-established targets for delivery of healthcare services.

49

Performance Outcomes

Chapter 09

A predetermined set of goals that are met consistently when the same standards of care are given.

50

Quality Management

Chapter 09

A method for ensuring that all the activities necessary to design, develop, and implement a product or service are effective and efficient with respect to the system and its performance.

51

Family

Chapter 10

A group of individuals that interact together, share common beliefs and values, and care and relate to each other. They are connected by their relationship with each other and they may change structurally over time.

52

Healthcare Delivery System

Chapter 10

A mechanism for providing services that meet the health needs of individuals.

53

Home Health Services

Chapter 10

A mechanism for providing services that meet the health needs of individuals.

54

Hospice

Chapter 10

Incorporates special services that address the unique needs of dying people and their families. Medical, spiritual, legal, financial, and family support services are provided.

55

Managed Care

Chapter 10

Administrative control over primary healthcare services for a defined client population.

56

Managed Care Organization (MCO)

Chapter 10

Receives a predetermined payment for each client enrolled in the program.

57

Medicaid

Chapter 10

A grant program or government insurance plan providing partial healthcare services for indigent people.

58

Medicare

Chapter 10

Similar to Social Security, this is an entitlement program. Individuals have contributed to it via taxes. People over the age of 65 years and some chronically ill persons are entitled to the health benefits regardless of their income and assets.

59

Parish Nurses

Chapter 10

Promote holistic health and healthy lifestyles for the church community members they serve.

60

Respite Care

Chapter 10

A service that provides temporary relief to informal caregivers such as family members who care for children, psychiatric clients, or frail older adults.

61

Case-Control Studies

Chapter 11

Research that retrospectively compares the characteristics of one individuals with certain medical conditions to another who does not have the medical condition.

62

Clinical Care Protocols

Chapter 11

Clinical practice guidelines that reflect the most up-to-date practice based on evidence for reference and knowledge with the goal of having the latest scientific knowledge available to clinicians to make decisions about care. Elements include systematic literature review, and the consensus of expert decision makers and consumers who consider the evidence and make recommendations.

63

Controlled Trial

Chapter 11

Research in which there is a treatment group and a group that does not receive the treatment (control group) so that comparisons can be made about the effectiveness of an intervention on a specific health issue and health outcome.

64

Descriptive Studies

Chapter 11

Research conducted in order to describe the characteristics of selected variables or a certain phenomenon.

65

Evidence-Based Nursing

Chapter 11

Clinical decision making by nurses that is a combination and integration of the best research evidence; it also includes the nurse's clinical expertise and patient values and preferences about a specific type of care.

66

Evidence-Based Practice

Chapter 11

The process of problem solving using the best research evidence in clinical decision making for patient care. It is a combination of a systematic search for and critical appraisal of the most relevant research available to answer a specific clinical question, with the clinician's own clinical expertise and patient values and preferences included.

67

Meta-Analysis

Chapter 11

The summarization of the results of several quantitative studies critically reviewed, synthesized, and evaluated to answer a specific clinical question about the effectiveness of an intervention across multiple studies in different settings.

68

Qualitative Study

Chapter 11

A descriptive type of research in which variables are not quantified numerically to describe a phenomenon of interest. Data are obtained through open-ended questions or interviews.

69

Randomized Controlled Trial

Chapter 11

Experimental research that is the strongest design to support a cause and effect relationship. Subjects are randomly assigned to a treatment group or a control group.

70

Systematic Review

Chapter 11

Summary of evidence obtained by researchers on a specific topic or clinical problem. It uses a step-by-step rigorous process to identify, synthesize, and evaluate research studies to answer a specific clinical question and to make conclusions about best evidence.

71

Breach of Duty

Chapter 16

Failure to perform according to a specific standard of care once a duty is established.

72

Causation

Chapter 16

A determination that if not for the conduct of the defendant, the plaintiff would not have been injured and that the consequences of such conduct were foreseeable.

73

Civil Law

Chapter 16

Law that dictates behavior between parties.

74

Common Law

Chapter 16

Law that develops as a result of judicial decision; also known as case law.

75

Consent

Chapter 16

A patient's acquiescence to care; it must be informed, voluntary, and competently made in order to be valid.

76

Damages

Chapter 16

Injuries incurred as a result of someone's negligence.

77

Delegation

Chapter 16

Handing over of a licensed activity, as defined by the state's nurse practice act, to an unlicensed person.

78

Duty

Chapter 16

An obligation to act or refrain from acting.

79

Good Samaritan Law

Chapter 16

A law enacted by a state that protects healthcare providers and other rescuers from liability if they render aid in an emergency, provided that they use reasonable and prudent judgment under the circumstances based on their education, training, and skill level.

80

Negligence

Chapter 16

Unintentional conduct that falls below a standard of care established for the protection of others against unreasonable risk of harm.

81

Professional Malpractice

Chapter 16

A type of negligence that results when a professional person fails to perform his or her professional duties in a reasonable manner.

82

Respondeat Superior

Chapter 16

A legal doctrine which holds that the employer is responsible for the actions of its employees that occur within the scope of the employment relationship.

83

Self-Determination

Chapter 16

The right of every individual to control his or her own person free from interference from others.

84

Tort Law

Chapter 16

Law that establishes rules for socially reasonable conduct.

85

The beginning of EBP is:

A: Collecting best evidence

B: Evaluating the change

C: Asking the "burning clinical question"

D: Critically evaluating the evidence

Chapter 11

The beginning of EBP is:

A: Collecting best evidence

B: Evaluating the change

C: Asking the "burning clinical question"

D: Critically evaluating the evidence

Chapter 11

86

The PICO format stands for patient's diagnosis, intervention of interest, comparison intervention, outcome.

A: TRUE

B: FALSE

Chapter 11

The PICO format stands for patient's diagnosis, intervention of interest, comparison intervention, outcome.

A: TRUE

B: FALSE (Reason: P = patient population)

87

The rating system for hierarchy of evidence is level 1 as the lowest level of practice to level 6-7 as highest level of evidence.

A: TRUE

B: FALSE

Chapter 11

The rating system for hierarchy of evidence is level 1 as the lowest level of practice to level 6-7 as highest level of evidence.

A: TRUE

B: FALSE (Reason: Level 1-highest, level 7-lowest)

88

EBP utilizes RCTs to decide the effectiveness of a treatment. It is research that supports a cause and effect relationship by utilizing a randomly assigned treatment group and control group.

A: TRUE

B: FALSE

Chapter 11

EBP utilizes RCTs to decide the effectiveness of a treatment. It is research that supports a cause and effect relationship by utilizing a randomly assigned treatment group and control group.

A: TRUE

B: FALSE

89

What type of law establishes rules for socially reasonable conduct and imposes liability on a party for unreasonable conduct?

A: Common Law

B: Civil Law

C: Tort Law

D: Bill of Rights

Chapter 16

What type of law establishes rules for socially reasonable conduct and imposes liability on a party for unreasonable conduct?

A: Common Law

B: Civil Law

C: Tort Law

D: Bill of Rights

90

In order for a case to be considered malpractice, it must prove 4 elements, which one is described as failing to perform according to the standard of care for that particular circumstance.

A: Damages

B: Causation

C: Duty

D: Breach of Duty

Chapter 16

In order for a case to be considered malpractice, it must prove 4 elements, which one is described as failing to perform according to the standard of care for that particular circumstance.

A: Damages

B: Causation

C: Duty

D: Breach of Duty

91

What is a planned act that results in harm to someone despite the harm not being expected by the person who acted?

A: malpractice

B: Intentional tort

C: negligence

D: non-maleficence

Chapter 16

What is a planned act that results in harm to someone despite the harm not being expected by the person who acted?

A: malpractice

B: Intentional tort

C: negligence

D: non-maleficence

92

Statutes that define the legal limits for the practice of nursing within that state and identifies requirements for licensure is known as the Nurse Practice Act.

A: TRUE

B: FALSE

Chapter 16

Statutes that define the legal limits for the practice of nursing within that state and identifies requirements for licensure is known as the Nurse Practice Act.

A: TRUE

B: FALSE

93

In order for the nurse to obtain informed consent, they must determine that the consent was involuntary and the patient was competent.

A: TRUE

B: FALSE

Chapter 16

In order for the nurse to obtain informed consent, they must determine that the consent was involuntary and the patient was competent.

A: TRUE

B: FALSE (Reason: voluntary consent)