Business Essentials Ch 8

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1

Absenteeism

when an employee does not show up for work

2

Affect

a person's feelings toward something

3

Attitudes

a person's beliefs and feelings about specific ideas, situations, or people

4

Authoritarianism

the extent to which a person believes that power and status differences are appropriate within hierarchical social systems such as organizations

5

"Big Five" Personality Traits

five fundamental personality traits especially relevant to organizations

6

Classical Theory of Motivation

theory holding that workers are motivated solely by money

7

Cognition

the knowledge a person presumes to have about something

8

Cognitive Dissonance

when two sets of cognitions or perceptions are contradictory or incongruent

9

Counterproductive Behavior

behaviors that detract from organizational performance

10

Emotional Intelligence (Emotional Quotient, EQ)

the extent to which people are self-aware, can manage their emotions, can motivate themselves, express empathy for others, and possess social skills

11

Employee Behavior

the pattern of actions by the members of an organization that directly or indirectly influences the organization's effectiveness

12

Equity Theory

theory of motivation holding that people evaluate their treatment by the organization relative to the treatment of others

13

Expectancy Theory

theory of motivation holding that people are motivated to work toward rewards that they want and that they believe they have a reasonable chance of obtaining

14

Flextime Programs

method of increasing job satisfaction by allowing workers to adjust work schedules on a daily or weekly basis

15

Hawthorne Effect

tendency for productivity to increase when workers believe they are receiving special attention from management

16

Hierarchy of Human Needs Model

theory of motivation describing five levels of basic human needs and arguing that basic needs must be fulfilled before people work to satisfy higher-level needs

17

Individual Differences

personal attributes that vary from one person to another

18

Intention

part of an attitude that guides a person's behavior

19

Job Enrichment

method of increasing job satisfaction by adding one or more motivating factors to job activities

20

Job Redesign

method of increasing job satisfaction by designing a more satisfactory fit between workers and their jobs

21

Job Satisfaction

degree of enjoyment that people derive from performing their jobs

22

Locus of Control

the extent to which people believe that their behavior has a real effect on what happens to them

23

Machiavellianism

used to describe behavior directed at gaining power and controlling the behavior of others

24

Management by Objectives (MBO)

set of procedures involving both managers and subordinates in setting goals and evaluating progress

25

Motivation

the set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways

26

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

a popular questionnaire that some organizations use to assess personality types

27

Need for Achievement

an individual's desire to accomplish a goal or task as effectively as possible

28

Need for Affiliation

an individual's desire for human companionship

29

Need for Power

the desire to control one's environment, including financial, material, informational, and human resources

30

Organizational Citizenship

positive behaviors that do not directly contribute to the bottom line

31

Organizational Commitment

an individual's identification with the organization and its mission

32

Participative Management and Empowerment

method of increasing job satisfaction by giving employees a voice in the management of their jobs and the company

33

Performance Behaviors

the total set of work-related behaviors that the organization expects employees to display

34

Personality

the relatively stable set of psychological attributes that distinguish one person from another

35

Person-Job Fit

the extent to which a person's contributions and the organization's inducements match one another

36

Positive Reinforcement

reward that follows desired behaviors

37

Psychological Contract

set of expectations held by an employee concerning what he or she will contribute to an organization (referred to as contributions) and what the organization will in return provide the employee (referred to as inducements)

38

Punishment

unpleasant consequences of an undesirable behavior

39

Risk Propensity

the degree to which a person is willing to take chances and make risky decisions

40

Self-Efficacy

a person's belief about his or her capabilities to perform a task

41

Self-Esteem

the extent to which a person believes that he or she is a worthwhile and deserving individual

42

Social Learning

learning that occurs when people observe the behaviors of others, recognize their consequences, and alter their own behavior as a result

43

Telecommuting

form of flextime that allows people to perform some or all of a job away from standard office settings

44

Theory X

theory of motivation holding that people are naturally lazy and uncooperative

45

Theory Y

theory of motivation holding that people are naturally energetic, growth-oriented, self motivated, and interested in being productive

46

Turnover

annual percentage of an organization's workforce that leaves and must be replaced

47

Two-Factor Theory

theory of motivation holding that job satisfaction depends on two factors, hygiene and motivation

48

Work Sharing (or Job Sharing)

method of increasing job satisfaction by allowing two or more people to share a single full-time job