Urinary System

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created 6 years ago by hoovemaa
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1

urinary system

major excretory system includes:

2 kidneys

2 ureters

1 urinary bladder

1 urethra

eliminates waste products from metabolism

2

other excretory systems

skin-H20 and NaCl through sweat

lungs- CO2

liver- Bile pigment

digestive via defacation

3

kidneys

not in abdo cavity- retroperitoneal

in lumbar region in a depression deep in the muscles of the posterior abdominal region

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adrenal glands

on top of kidneys

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renal capsule

covers the kidneys

protects kidneys from physical trauma

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renal fascia

outermost layer, fibrous CT connects kidneys to surround tissue

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adipose capsule

fatty tissue that holds kidneys against posterior muscles, cushions kidneys

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cortex

lies just deep to fibrous capsule

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medulla

deep to cortex

6-18 cone shaped segments called renal pyramids

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renal pyramids

where nephrons are

empties urine into a calyx-channel between nephrons and renal pelivs

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nephron

functional unit of the kidneys

1.25 million per kidney

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2 components of nephrons

glomerulus

tubular

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glomerulus

vessels that get blood to nephrons

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tubular

urine forms in the tubes

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renal pelvis

medial expanded portion

extension of the ureter (connects at the hilum)

urine moves from renal pelvis to ureter

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ureters

2 slightly flattened tubes

extend from each renal pelvis to urinary bladder

retroperitoneal

move urine to bladder via peristalsis

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urinary bladder

stretchable bag for urine storage

posterior to pubic symphasis

capacity-600ml on average

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peeing

when ~250ml of urine is in bladder, signal is sent to CNS telling it to nictrate (pee)

sacral portions of spinal cord stimulate interal sphincter muscles to relax

ureters connect with bladder through openings in floor of bladder

bladder drains into the urethra through 3rd opening

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urethra

1 tube delivers urine from bladder out of body

3-4 cm in females, 21 cm in males

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urethral orifice

external opening of urethra

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urine formation occurs where?

in nephrons

blood enters the glomerulus through afferent arterioles

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glomerulus

mass of capillaries where filtration occurs

large molecules will remain in blood

small molecules will leave blood

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bowman's capsule

a sac around the glomerulus into which move the small molecules filtrated out of the blood

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proximal convoluted tubule

twisted tube in kidney cortex that connects glomerulus capillaries to descending loop of Henle

-site of reabsorption into blood of most smalle molecules

-excess molecules and waste

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loop of Henle

tube that descends from proximal convoluted tubule into the medulla

NaCl is reabsorbed into peritubular capillaries which allows for reabsorption of H2O into capillaries

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distal convoluted tubules

absorbs molecules secreted from peritubular capillaries

ie creatinine, uric acid, ammonia penicillin

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collecting duct

large tubule in medulla

site of reabsorption of H2O into peritubular capillaries

urine is fully formed and moves from collecting ducts into calyx to renal pelvis to ureters

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urinalysis

analysis of urine composition

ph-4.6-8.0

95% water 5% solutes

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abnormal constituents of urine

blood-damaged kidney or bladder

glucose-too high glucose levels in blood

albumin- damaged glomerulus

bacteria-infection