digestive system

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created 6 years ago by hoovemaa
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1

alimentary canal

basic pathway- mouth, oral cavity, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, colon, rectum, anus

2

accesory glands

secrete digestive enzymes in canal, ie salivary glands, pancreas, liver

3

digestive process time

12-24 hours

4

ingestion

eating

5

digestion

breaking down of food into molecules

6

absorption

body takes up and uses nutrient molecules

7

elimination

release of undigested material

8

buccal cavity

space between teeth and cheeks

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labia

lips

10

vestibule

space between lips and teeth

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hard/soft palate

forms roof of mouth

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gingavae

gums

13

uvula

posterior portion of soft palate

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tongue

skeletal muscle, manipulates food into a bolus

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papillae

on upper surface of tonuge, contains taste buds

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body (tongue)

anterior portion

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root (tongue)

point of attachment

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frenulum (tongue)

inferior portion attaching to base of oral cavity

if too short it can cause a speech impediment

19

salivary glands

produce saliva

clean mouth, teeth, add moisture to bolus of food

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3 pairs of salivary glands

parotid

sublingual

submandibular

21

parotid

on lateral side of face, anterior to ear, enters oral cavity at 2nd upper molar

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sublingual

8-20 ducts empty saliva into floor of mouth

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submandibular

medial surface of mandible, empty on either side of lingual frenulum

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teeth

chew food

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root (teeth)

below gumline

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crown (teeth)

exposed surface

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enamel

hard outer surface made of calcium

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dentin

inner matrix

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pulp cavity

hollow inside

contains vessels and nerves

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root canal

canal running length of root

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gingival sulcus

where gum and tooth meet

32

types of teeth

incisors

cuspids

bicuspids

molars

33

incisors

front cutting teeth

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cuspids

conical tearing teeth, aka canines

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bicuspids

crushing and grinding (2 roods)

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molars

3+ roots, crushing and grinding

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dental succession

20 deciduous (baby) teeth

32 permanent teeth

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labial/buccal side

lip/cheeck side of teeth

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lingual/palatal side

tongue side of teeth

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mesial side

faces away from last molar

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distal side

faces toward last molar

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occlusal surface

surface that touches other teeth when closed against each other

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pharynx

connects oral cavity to esophagus-swallowing

food enters pharynx, larynx rises, glottis closes, epiglottis flips down over glottis and material is forced into esophagus

44

4 layers of pharynx

serosa

muscularis

submucosa

mucosa

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serosa (pharynx)

outer layer of CT and peritoneum

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muscularis (pharynx)

muscularis

47

submucosa (pharynx)

CT with glands, nerves, blood vessels

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mucosa (pharynx)

inner most layer, faces lumen (open space)

made of epithelium, CT and muscle

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esophagus

1st segment-10 inches long, brings bolus to stomach

50

esophagus sphincters (2)

pharyngoesophageal

lower esophageal or cardiac gastroesophageal

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pharyngoesophageal

close to the pharynx

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lower esophageal

where esophagus joins the stomach

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peristalsis

contraction of digestive tubes

begins in esophagus, pushes bolus along GI tract

controlled voluntary in top 1/3

54

antiperistalsis

irritation in stomach/small intestine can reverse peristalsis

55

heartburn

due to reflux

stomach acid moves to esophagus and irritates mucosa

56

3 causes of hearburn

weakened lower esophageal sphincter due to fat, alcohol, or chocolate reacting with stomach acid

hiatal hernia-weak spot in diaphragm that allows stomach to move up

increased pressure due to obesity, pregnancy or overfull stomach

57

lesser curvature of stomach

medial surface

58

greater curvature of stomach

lateral surface

59

cardia curvature

end under heart

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fundus

bulge above esophagus opening

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body (stomach)

largest region of stomach

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pyloris

J-shaped curve at inferior end terminates in pyloric sphincter: between stomach and small intestine

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rugae

interior folds of stomach

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greater omentum

fatty apron for protection

65

stomach musculature

outer layer-longitudinal

middle layer- circular

inner layer-oblique

differences causes churning

66

chemical breakdown in stomach

millions of digestive glands produce pepsin and HCl to aid in breakdown of chemicals

67

ulcers

caused when HCl breaks down stomach membrane

68

chyme

bolus is mixed with pepsin and HCl

pasty semisolid acidic mixture, in stomach 2-6 hrs

passes through pyloric sphincter into duodenum

69

small intestine

10 ft long

breaks down chyme into small molecules, absorbs nutrients, and moves undigested material to large intestine

70

3 segments of small intestine

duodenum

jejunum

ileum

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duodenum

1st portion of small intestine, receives bile to emulsify fat

receives pancreatic secretions

72

bile

emulsifying agent made in liver stored in gall bladder

breaks fat into small particles to mix with enzymes and water

73

jejunum

2nd segment of small intestine

further digests food

74

ileum

3rd segment

more digestion

ends at iliocecal valve-between ileum and cecum

75

large intestine

absorbs water and electrolytes and prepares feces

76

cecum

baglike section-wormlike appendages-vermiform appendix

77

colon segments (4)

ascending

transverse

descending

sigmoid

78

ascending colon

up and right side of body

79

transverse colon

right to left just under liver and stomach

80

descending colon

down left side of body

81

sigmoid colon

S-shaped connects with rectum

82

rectum

6-7 inches long

3 folds to support fecal matter

83

anal canal

goes through body wall to exterior

ends in anus (anal sphincter) for defacation

84

hemorrhoids

dilated veins in anal canal, resuls from irritation of mucosa/pressure

85

appendicitis

infected appendix

86

diarrhea

too much water is left in intestine (usually to rid body of infection) or nervous stimulation due to stress

87

constipation

too much water absorbed, leaving hard dry stool

88

diverticulosis

development of diverticula (sac like appendages in walls of large intestines)

89

diverticulitis

inflamed diverticula

caused by low fiber diet, usually no symptoms

cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, or constipation

90

polyps

growths from epithelial tissue of mucosa of intestines

can become cancerous

91

colostomy

if lower part of rectum/anal canal are removed and artificial opening is made where fecal matter is collected

92

accessory organs

contribute to digestion but are not part of alimentary canal

93

pancreas

mixed gland-endo and exocrine functions

secretes glucagon to increase blood sugar, insulin to decrease

secretes pancreatic juices (lipase, amylase, trypsin) to aid in digestion

94

acute pancreatitis

blocked duct in pancreas

95

pancreatic cancer

usually fatal due to no symptoms until cells have metastasized

96

liver

largest gland in body 2 main lobes

left lobe has three parts, right lobe has 1

97

liver functions

blood that has absorbed nutrients from small intestine passes through liver

stores glucose as glycogen

breaks down amino acids from proteins

destroys old RBC's

removes toxins from blood

stores vitamins ADEK

98

bile formation

live breaks down hemoglobin and old cell pieces that pass through blood

these wastes are used by liver to form bile

bile contains high amounts of cholesterol

is stored in the gall bladder

99

cirrhosis

scar tissue blocks blood flow through liver

caused by alcholism/hep C

nausea, weakness, weight loss, exhaustion

cannot be reversed

100

gall bladder

under liver, 3-4 inches long

101

gall bladder function

stores bile, and secretes to small intestine

102

jaundice

yellowing of skin, conjunctiva, and mucous membranes due to bilirubin deposits (from RBC break down)

bilirubin is toxic and can cause neural damage

103

3 types of jaundice

obstructive

hemolytic

physiologic

104

obstructive jaundice

bile ducts obstructed by gall stones, so bile can't drain out of liver

105

hemolytic

from RBC's being broken down in large quantities

106

physologic

immature livers can't excrete bilirubin as quickly as it is formed

common in newborns

UV light converts bilirubin in the skin

107

obesity

its super bad for you to be fat