Respiratory System

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created 6 years ago by hoovemaa
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updated 6 years ago by hoovemaa
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1

respiratory system

structures and organs that function in air distribution and gas exchange

2

3 functions of respiratory system

filter, warm, humidify air breathed in

influence sound production

sense of smell

3

3 subdivisions

nose

pharynx

larynx

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nose function

allows for air intake and smell

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nares

nostrils, external opening

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vestibule

cavity inside nose

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nasal cavity

narrow openings separated by the median nasal septum

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median nasal septum

divides nasal cavity into left and right, composed of perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone, vomer, and cartilage

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deviated septum

septum is pushed to one side, interferes with respiration and drainage

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3 conchae per side

bone projections that increase the surface area of nasal cavity walls

covered with ciliated mucous membranes that filter and warm air

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olfactory receptor cells

receive chemicals interpreted as smells

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paranasal sinus

air filled spaces in skull

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hard palate

bony region forms anterior roof of mouth

separates nasal cavity from oral cavity

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soft palate

cartilage, muscular region forming posterior roof of mouth

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uvula

projection from soft palate

prevents food from entering nose

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pharynx functions

connects nasal and oral cavities to larynx and esophagus

common tube for respiratory and digestive systems

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3 parts of pharynx

nasopharynx

oropharynx

laryngopharynx

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nasopharynx

where nasal cavity opens into pharynx

posterior to nose, extends to soft palate

includes eustachian tubes and pharyngeal tonsils (posterior wall just above oropharynx

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oropharynx

where oral cavity opens to pharynx between soft palate and hyoid bone, just behind tongue

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palatine tonsils

in oropharynx, between 2 arches of tissue to the side of the opening into oropharynx from the mouth and lingual tonsils at base of tongue

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laryngopharynx

opens into larynx and is between the hyoid bone and esophagus

passageway for air from nose or mouth

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larynx

formed from thyoid and cricoid cartilage

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larynx function

voice box

directs food into esophagus and air into trachea

glottis-opening into the larynx

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epiglottis

cartilage flap that covers glottis when swallowing

at anterior end of the glottis the mucous membrane forms 2 folds

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false vocal cords

form the wall of the glottis

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true vocal cords

vibrate to produce sound

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lower respiratory tract (5 structures)

trachea

primary bronchii

bronchioles

alveoli

lungs

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trachea

made of C-shaped cartilage rings that prevent collapse

lined with ciliated mucous membranes

cilia beat upward to push dust and bits of food out of pharynx to be swallowed/coughed out

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primary bronchii

2 branches, 1 to each lung, enter at hilus

right is shorter and wider

branch into smaller tubes 2, 3

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bronchioles

small tubes branching from tertiary bronchii

final branches are called terminal bronchioles

no cartilage mostly smooth muscle

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alveoli

cluster of sacs at end of terminal bronchioles, alveolar ducts lead to sacs

site of gas exchange

pulmonary capillaries surround alveoli-where CO2 and O2 gas exchange occurs

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emphysema

disease that causes alveoli to become brittle and eventually rupture

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IRDS

infant respiratory distress syndrome

surfactant producing cells are underdeveloped and alveoli collapse

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lungs

2 cone shaped organs, above clavicle down to diaphragm inside ribs

contain bronchii, bronchioles, and alveoli

2 lobes, superior and inferior separated by oblique fissure

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right lung split

3 lobes

superior, middle and inferior

horizontal and oblique fissures

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lung surfaces

cardiac notch on left lung for heart, costal surface (along ribs), mediastinal (contains hilus)

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lung location

in pleural cavity

thoracic walls form cavity, lined with parietal pleura membrane

enclosed in visceral pleura

diaphragm forms thoracic cavity floor

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ventilation

movement of air in and out of lungs

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eupnea

normal breathing

diaphragmatic-deep breathing

costal- ribs move only, shallow

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hypernea

forced breathing

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inspiration

diaphragm contracts, pulls down while external intercostals pull ribs up, increase volume of the thoracic cavity

lung volume decreases and lowers air pressure, this causes partial vacuum and pulls air in

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expiration (passive)

diaphragm relaxes and decreases volume of thoracic cavity and lungs increase in pressure and force air out

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expiration (active)

contraction of abdominal muscles and internal intercostals force diaphragm up, this increases pressure and forces air out

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medulla oblongata

sends impulses to diaphragm and intercostals

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lung capacitor

used to measure respiratory function

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tidal volume (TV)

amount of air moved in/out with each breath, about 500 ml

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vital capacity (VC)

total volume that can be moved in/out with 1 maximal breath, about 4500-5000 ml

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inspiratory reserve volume

amount of air that can be inspired after normal tial volume inspired (about 3100 ml)

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expiratory reserve volume

amount you can exhale after normal TV is expired, about 1400 ml

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residual volume

amount left in lungs after maximum expiration, about 1000 ml

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common cold

virus enters cells of upper respiratory tract

spread by mucous droplets containing virus

150+ types

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influenza

virus kills respiratory cells, causes inflammation and irritation in trachea and bronchii

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bronchitis

viral or bacterial

acute-usually bacterial

symptoms- heavy mucous discharge and cough

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strep

bacteria

fever, sore throat, can lead to rheumatic fever

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pneumonia

bacterial or viral

fluid builds up in alveoli

can be fatal

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tuberculosis

bacterial-forms a tubercule (specific infection site on lungs)

tubercule breaks apart and forms calcified centers

eventually causes tissue damage

57

pulmonary fibrosis

contaminants inhaled-asbestos, silica, coal dust

cells in lungs form fibrous CT, makes lungs less elastic and less efficient

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lung cancer

cells exposed to irriatants and divide and form masses called callus

cells develop abnormal nuclei

if cells break away from callus and go throughout the body=metastasizing

removed via pneumonectomy