RM 4216 Final

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media strategy

analyzing and choosing media for an advertising and promotions campaign


media planning

understanding the processes customers use in making purchases and what influences the final decisions. elements of media planning includes Marketing analysis • Advertising analysis • Media strategy • Media schedule • Justification and summary


marketing analysis

includes statement of current sales, current market share, and prime prospects to be solicited by demographics, lifestyles, geographic, location, product usage.


advertising analysis

states primary advertising strategy and budgeting to be used to achieve advertising objectives


media strategy

spells out the media to be used and the creative considerations


media schedule

notes when ads will appear in individual vehicles


justification and summary

outlines measures of goal achievement and explains the rationale for each media choice


media planners

formulates media program stating where and when to place ads. they work closely with creatives, account planners, agencies, and media buyers.


media buyer

purchases space and negotiates rates, times, and schedules for ads.



represents number of people, households, or businesses in target audience exposed to media vehicle or message schedule at least once during given time period (normally 4 weeks)



average number of times an individual, household, or business within target market is exposed to particular ad within specific time period (usually 4 weeks)


opportunities to see

cumulative exposures achieved in given time period. example - company places 2 ads on weekly tv show- 8 ots (4 shows x 2 ads per show during a 4 week period)


gross rating points (GRPs)

measure the impact or intensity of media plan. calculated by multiplying vehicle's rating by OTS or number of insertions on an ad. grps give advertiser better idea of odds that members of target audience actually viewed commercial.



measures overall expenditures associated with advertising program/campaign. the cost per thousand (cpm) method is used = (cost of media buy/total audience) x 1,000



measures percentage of firm's target market that is exposed to tv show or number of readers of a print medium. cost per rating point (cprp) is used = cost of media buy/vehicle's rating



exposure pattern or schedule used in a campaign. three types: continuous (steady stream), pulsating (increasing/decreasing ads, small short bursts around holidays), flighting/discontinuous (ad exposure used during certain seasons)


gross impressions

total exposures of audience to an ad


threeexposure hypothesis

it is believed that it takes min of three for an ad to be effective, theory created by herbert krugman.


intrusion value

represents ability of medium or ad to capture attention of viewer without voluntary effort


recency theory

consumer's attention us selective and focuses on individual needs and wants and consumer has selective attention processes as he considers ads.


effective reach

percentage of audience that must be exposed to particular message to achieve specific ojective


effective frequency

number of times target audience must be exposed to message to achieve particular objective


brand recognition

strengthening or creating links between brand and other nodes of info that exist in person's knowledge structure is the goal.


brand recall

frequency is more important than reach in order to increase brand recall. repetition increases odds that particular brand will come to mind and helps embed brand in consumer's mind.



advantages- high reach, high frequency potential, low cost per contact, high intrusion value, quality creative opportunities, segmentation through cable

disadvantages- high level clutter, low recall due to clutter, channel surfing during ads, dvrs skipping ads, short amount of copy, high cost per ad



advantages- recall promoted, narrower target markets, ad music can match audience, high segmentation potential, flexibility in making ads, modify ad to local conditions, intimacy with djs, mobile listen anywhere, creative opportunities with sound and music

disadvantage- short exposure time, low attention, difficult to reach national audiences, target duplication with several stations using same format, info overload


outdoor advertising

advantages- select key geographic areas, accessible for local ads, low cost per impression, broach reach, high frequency on major commuter routes, large visual possible, digital capabilities

disadvantages- short exposure time, brief messages, little segmentation, clutter



advantages- high market segmentation, targeted audience by magazines, direct response techniques, high color quality, long life, read during leisure-longer attention to ads, availability of special features

disadvantages- declining readership, clutter, long lead time, little flexibility, high cost



advantages- geographic selectivity, high flexibility, high credibility, strong audience interest, longer copy, cumulative volume discounts, coupons and special response features

disadvantages- poor buying procedures, short life span, clutter, poor quality reproduction, internet competition, aging leadership


media mix

selecting proper blend of media outlets for ads. "media multiplier effect" suggests combined impact of using two or more media is stronger than one.


media selection in b2b markets

key issues- business decision makers also consume goods and services so the same psychological techniques used to influence and gain consumer attention can be used for business decision makers. business decision makers are difficult to reach at work- secretaries, voice mails often prevent flow of info to users. clutter makes it more difficult to get companied noticed.


global implications

key issues- tvs are accessible in some countries and not others. in europe, good way to reach consumers is through print media. nature of target markets, consumer preferences, and processes used differs in countries.


web 4.0

characteristics- customer engagement, cloud operating systems, web participation a necessity

companies that succeed will connect customers with brand through social media, blogs, twitter


channel integration

is essential when business sells through additional channels beyond the web. company that offers printed catalog or has retail store should match printed catalog with web catalog


brand engagement

e commerce sites provides engagement through blogs, feedback apps, customer reviews. welcoming individuals by name as they access site is customization and personalization.


shopping cart abandonment

online retailers find higher percent of online shoppers abandon shopping carts because of hidden charges and difficulty checking out.


financial incentives

helps persuade individual or business to make first time purchase via ecommerce and encourage them to return. incentives take form of reduced price, free shipping, e-coupon. reduced shipping cost, decreased labor cost, and lower personnel costs


convenience incentives

making shopping process easier encourages customers to visit website. order can be made day or night, no traveling.


value added incentives

leads customers to change purchasing habits over time. software system recognizes patterns of customer's purchasing behavior and makes offers matching the pattern


privacy and security issues

consumer concerns regarding privacy and security are based on past incidents in which credit cards have been stolen. customers are concerned firms will sell personal info. consumers are frustrated with being bombarded with ads and marketing messages.


b2b e-commerce

many purchasing agents go online to compare prices and product info. customer finds it easy to place order and prices are usually lower than at the store. save time, check status of order, shipment info, billing data, online auctions and exchanges


mobile marketing

types of mobile marketing- display ads, search ads, video ad, texting, in-app advertising, qr codes/digital watermarks/2d barcodes, geo targeting


consumer engagement and interactive marketing

development of marketing programs that create interplay between consumers and businesses. features a two way communication and customer involvement.


steps in developing interactive strategy

cultivate attitude of giving, gain trust, identify one word brand, define ultimate vision, choose communication channels, and evaluate and adjust.


banner advertising

today, banner ads account for 22.6 percent of online advertising. can be embedded with videos and widget apps. geo target ads offer another version of banner advertising that are advertised only to people who log on to the web in particular region.


classified and media/video advertising

comprises significant percentage of online advertising budgets. "dwell rates" measures proportion of ad impressions that result in users clicking an ad or mousing over it. "dwell time" indicates amount of time individuals spend engaged with an ad


search engine optimization

seo, process of increasing probability of particular company's website emerging from a search. paid search insertion comes up when certain products or info are sought. natural or organic method is used for developing effective and efficient results that arise from natural search process. paid search ads includes small text boxes that pop up when particular word is typed


impact of online advertising

web users are becoming immune to ads. percentage of people who respond to banners are shrinking. click through rate on major webs has declined . advertisers have begun banking on new technologies to increase response rates and deliver targeted messages to individuals who are most likely to respond


brand spiraling

involves use of traditional media to promote and attract consumers to website. marketers design tv, radio, newspapers, magazines, and billboards that encourage consumers to visit firm's website in effort to maintain uniform brand presence and ad message


personal urls (PURLS)

purl contains personalized preloaded web page that contains customer's personal data, contact info, purchase behavior, and previous interaction with company. example- ford can display customer's current vehicle, maintenance record, and other interactions with company.



the power of blog comes from new landscape it creates in which consumer dissatisfied with particular brand can now tell thousands and millions of others. some companies use blogs to promote products or get closer to consumers.


consumer generated reviews

should be carefully considered. reviews provide important info about how company products are evaluated by consumers and how brand compares to competition. these info are needed for developing marketing plans, product modification, and service strategies.



companies integrate email marketing programs with other channels such as webinar, direct mail, social media, and telemarketing.


web analytics

allow company to develop email campaigns that offer the greatest chance of response. they identify those who made past purchases or items placed in wish list but never purchased


email newsletter

helps create brand awareness, drives traffic to website, and spur sales. beneficial when consumers sign up to receive them.


viral marketing

marketing message passed from one consumer to another through digital.

keys to successful viral marketing: focus on product, determine why individuals would want to pass the message along, offer incentive, make it personal, track results and analyze data


shipping issues

air transport is affordable for smaller products. larger merchandise normally can be shipped by frieght, ships, and trucks. air trainsports and freights offer specialized software and provide proper documentation and forms to meet regulations in diff countries.


communication issues

developing a website that appeals to audience in each country includes adding info that someone from a different country would require such as phone numbers. also requires removing or changing colors, words, images that might be offensive to particular groups.


technology issues

software compatibility is a problem and remains unresolved. to ensure consistency, ibm designs main marketing messages where it gets translated by local companies.


alternative marketing

relies on word of mouth, buzz, lifestyles, and times when consumers are relaxing and enjoying hobbies and events. requires creativity and imagination.


buzz marketing

aka word of mouth, emphasizes consumers passing along info about a product. recommendation by a friend, family member, brand ambassadors, house parties, acquintance carries high levels of credibility.


buzz marketing stages

inoculation- product is introduced

incubation- product is used by a few innovators

infection- widespread use of product occurs


buzz marketing preconditions

product must be unique, new, or superior. brand must stand out. advertising should be memorable, intriguing, different, and unique. consumer involvement with brand.


stealth marketing

a special form of buzz marketing. applies to surreptitious practices to introduce product to individuals or fails to disclose or reveal true relationships with brand. ex- someone posing as a tourist might ask ppl to take photo with new camera and then talk to them about the camera.


guerilla marketing

requires energy and imagination, geared to small businesses and big dreams, results measured by profits, based on psychology and human behavior, grows through existing customers and referrals, cooperates with other businesses, aims messages at individuals and small groups, uses marketing to gain customer consent, you marketing that looks at ho can we help you


traditional marketing

requires money, geared to large businesses with big budgets, results measured by sales, based on experience and guesswork, increases production and diversity, grows by adding customers, obliterates competition, aims message towards large groups, uses marketing to generate sales, me marketing that looks at my company


lifestyle marketing

involves identifying marketing methods associated with hobbies and entertainment venues of target audience.


reasons for using guerilla marketing

to find a new way to communicate with consumers, interact with consumers, make advertising accessible to consumers, impact spot market, create buzz, and build relationships with consumers


experimental marketing

combines direct marketing, field marketing, and sales promotions into single consumer experience.


product placement

serves purpose of influencing viewers. offers advantage of a low cost per viewer esp for movies. leads to increased awareness and more positive attitudes toward brand.


brand entertainment

integration of entertainment and advertising by embedding brands into storyline of a movie, show, or other entertainment medium. ex- the movie "up in the air" displayed american airlines and hilton hotels.


key factors influencing effectiveness of product placement and branded entertainment

media, supporting promotional activities, consumer attitudes toward placements, placement characteristics, regulations


alternative media venues

video games, cinema, subways, street and mall kiosks, stairs, escalators, parking lots, airlines, shopping bags, clothes


instore marketing tactics

has major impact on purchase decision. companies try to engage customers by using end aisle displays and merchandise displays. use of color, light, sound, video screens.


point of purchase tactics

includes many forms of exhibits that advertises merchandise near cash registers and at the end of aisles and anywhere easily noticed.


effective point of purchase displays

integrate brand's image into display, integrate display with current advertising and promotions, make display dramatic to get attention, keep color of display down so product and signage stand out, make display versatile so it can be easily adapted by retailers, make display reusable and easy to assemble, customize display to fit retailer's store, make display easy to stock


brand communities

demonstration of brand loyalty and brand devotion. symbolic meaning behind brand links individuals to brand community and other owners of the brand. formed through interactions between customers and with product.


ways to enhance brand communities

create member benefits to encourage new customers to join, provide materials to group that aren't available anywhere else, involve firm representatives in groups, sponsor events and regular meetings, promote communications among members of group, build strong brand reputation


consumer promotions

enticing a consumer to take final step and make purchase. advertising creates interest and excitement that brings consumer to store. helps generate store traffic and enhance brand loyalty. ex- coupons, premiums, contests and sweepstakes, refunds and rebates, sampling, bonus packs, and price offs



advantages- consumer makes conscious effort to clip/save coupon, coupons create brand awareness (consumer sees brand name on coupon even when it's not redeemed), it encourages consumers to purchase brands on next trip to store (consumers are more likely to purchase couponed brand and remember name when they redeem a coupon which helps move brand to long term memory)

disadvantages- consumers stock up on item but don't buy from competition, brand-preference customer redemptions are necessary evil in mass distribution programs. coupons only reach regular customers, not new ones



prizes, gifts, other special offers consumers receive when purchasing products.

advantages- reinforce firm's image, boost sales,

disadvantages- overuse of coupons damages brand's image, usually not successful as coupon sales, less effective at increasing profits



require participant to perform activity and make purchase to enter. in some states, forcing consumers to make purchase to enter contest is illegal. contests range from bikini contests to popular tv shows (american idol, jeopardy)



no purchase is required. consumers can enter as many times as they wish. odds of winning and probability of winning on all pop must be published in advance


refunds and rebates

cash returns offered to consumers or businesses following purchase of product. consumer pay full price for product but can mail in some type of proof of purchase. refund is cash on return on soft goods (food and clothing). rebates are cash returns on hard goods (cars and appliances)



delivery of product to consumers for their use or consumption. in b2b markets, sample of products may be given to potential clients. sampling can be featured in service sectors as well. ex-tanning salons may offer initial visit free to encourage new customers to try its facilities.


bonus packs

additional or extra number of items places in special product package such as offering four bars of soap for price of three. typical bonuses range from 20-100 percent of normal number of units in package. 30 percent bonus is most common

objectives- increase usage of product, match or preempt competitive actions, stockpile product, develop customer loyalty, attract new users, encourage brand switching


price offs

temporary reduction in price of product to consumer. help stimulates sales of existing products. entice customers to try new products because lower price reduces financial risk of making the purchase. encourage customers to switch brands in brand parity. encourages stockpiling of product and increase consumption of item. reward is immediate. might produce negative impact on company's margin profit. when used too often customers choose another brand that is on sale.


overlay and tie ins

overlay combines two or more consumer promotions activities into single campaign. ex- to attract chinese consumers Tropicana combined free samples of cups of orange along with coupons. tie-in is developing consumer promotion with another product or company. fast food uses tie ins with movies/toys to create attractive children's promotions.


intracompany tie ins

promotion of two different products within one company using one consumer promotion


intercompany tie ins

partnering with another company for consumer promotion. ex- restaurants using toys or movies.


promotion-prone consumers

respond to various consumer promotions and like to purchase products that are on deal. they tend to clip coupons on regular basis, enter contests and sweepstakes, purchase bonus packs, and respond to other promotional offers.


price sensitive consumers

primary or criterion used in making purchase decision. brand names aren't important and they will not pay more for them. they take advantage of any type of promotion that reduces price


brand loyal consumers

purchase only one particular brand and don't substitute regardless any deal being offered. they make necessary effort to purchase their chosen brand.


brand preference consumers

consider small set of brands for which they have strong attachment. when promotions are offered for one of their chosen brands, it becomes one to be purchased. they ignore promotion for brand not in brand-preferred set, regardless size or type of promotion being offered.


trade allowances

provides financial incentives to other channel members to motivate them to make purchases. it comes in many forms- off invoice allowance (a per-case rebate to retailers for an order), slotting fees (money paid to retailers to stock new product), and exit fees (money paid to retailers to remove item from sku inventory)


trade contests

to achieve sales targets and other objectives. winners receive prizes or cash (spiff money). can be between brokers or agents, wholesalers, retail stores.


trade incentives

involve retailer or channel member performing a function in order to receive funds to encourage channel member to push manufacturer's brand or increase purchases of brand.


trade shows

many b2b marketing programs appear at trade shows. they benefit both manufacturers and retailers. it provides opportunity to discover potential customers and sell new products. presents opportunity to investigate competition. establish situation in which manufacturer's sales team meets directly with decision makers and buyers from b2b clients


education seekers

buyers who want to browse, look, and learn but aren't in buying mode


reinforcement seekers

buyers who want reassurance they made the right decision in past purchases


solution seekers

buyers seeking solutions to specific problems and are in buying mode


buying team

team of buyers seeking vendors for their business- usually are in buying mode


power buyers

members of upper management or key purchasing agents with authority to buy


concerns with trade promotions

coupon, premium, contest, sweepstakes, or price change must fit with local legal regulations. in some cultures, those who redeem coupons are viewed as being of lower socioeconomic status. small and large companies seeking to do business overseas will need to adjust to local conditions when employing tactics.


public relations

pr manages publicity and other communications with every group in contact with company. marketing department concentrates on customers and channel members en route to those customers whereas pr department focuses on variety of internal and external stakeholders, including employees, stockholders, public interest groups, the government, and society as a whole


public relations functions

-identify internal/external stakeholders

-assess corporate reputation

-audit corporate social responsibility

-create positive image-building activities

-prevent/reduce image damage



internal- enhance or damage firm's image. provides powerful channel of communication to people outside org. works closely with hr department

external- company has to influence over how external publics perceive org. activities. includes group such as media, local community, financial community, government, special interest groups.


assessing corporate reputation

well-received corporate and brand names enhance businesses during good times to protect them when crisis or problems occur. consumer decisions regarding which brands to purchase are influenced by company's reputation. assessment begins when surveys and interviews are conducted to reveal perception of org. monitoring online chatter, tweets, and social networks produces additional info.


auditing corporate social responsibility (csr)

obligation of org. has to be ethical, accountable, and reactive to needs of society. companies have to align values for greater good of society and take actions that have positive effect.


cause related marketing

ties marketing activities with charity in order to generate goodwill.


green marketing

development and promotion of products that are environmentally safe. "greenwashing" companies that claim to make green products


damage control

an important function. reacting to negative events caused by company error, consumer grievances, or unjustified or exaggerated negative press. takes two forms- proactive prevention strategies and reactive damage control strategies


proactive prevention strategies

rather than waiting for harmful publicity to appear and then reacting, firms charge certain employees with minimizing effects of any future bad press in advance. this prevents publicity from emerging in first place



attempts to claim responsibility for positive outcomes of events



attempts to increase impact of desirable outcome of even in the eyes of the public


reactive damage control strategies

company leaders must react to unforeseen events. managers work diligently to blunt effects of unwanted bad publicity by every means possible.


internet intervention

negative online word of mouth by sharing it their bad experiences through email, social networks, blogs, and twitter. consumers from around the world share horror stories about companies and products. individuals can say anything online even when it unfairly portrays various industries, companies, or brands


crisis management

company can either accept blame for an event or offer apology or refute charges in forceful manner. crisis contains potential to improve firm's position and image.


apology strategy

investigation reveals that firm was at fault. apology contains expression of guilt/embarrassment/regret, statement of recognizing inappropriate behavior and acceptance of sanctions for wrong behavior, rejection of inappropriate behavior, approval of appropriate behavior and promise not to engage in same behavior again, offer of compensation or penance to correct wrong.


impression management

conscious and unconscious attempt to control images that are projected in real or imagined social interactions. individuals and corporations attempt to influence identities they display to others.


sponsorship marketing

company pays money to sponsor someone, some group, or something that is part of an activity.


forms of sponsorship

festival, fairs, annual events, entertainment, tours, attractions, causes, arts, sports (71.2)


sponsorship objectives

enhance company's image, increase firm's visibility, differentiate company from its competitors, showcase specific goods/services, help firm develop closer relationships with current and prospective customers, sell excess inventory


event marketing

involves a company in supporting specific event. normally setting up a booth or display and maintaining physical presence at event.


selecting sponsorship and events

determine objective of sponsorship or event, match sponsorship or event with company's customers/vendors/employees, promote sponsorship or event, make sure company is included in all event advertising and brochures, track results


cross promotion

marketing event that ties together companies and activities around specific theme.


global implications- public relations

growing number of international firms creates need to make sure company will be viewed in positive light in every country. impact of terrorism and war over past decade has heightened sensitivities between many nations. whenever there are differences among cultures potential exists to offend without intending to do so.


message evaluation techniques

examines message and physical design of ad, coupon, or direct marketing piece. includes study of actors in ads as well as individuals who speak in radio ads. reviews cognitive components associated with ad such as recall and recognition, emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral intention responses


online evaluation metrics

examines online advertising and marketing campaigns. click throughs, dwell rate, and dwell time. provides real time measures of consumer reactions


respondent behavior evaluations

addresses visible customer actions, including store visits, inquiries, actual purchases. contains evaluation technique measures that use numbers such as coupons redeemed and number of hits on website and changes in sales.


matching methods with IMC objectives

marketers choose methods of evaluation that match objectives being measured. objectives may be increasing customer interest in and recall of a brand using level of customer awareness as metric. ex- marketing team measures awareness before, during, and after ads have run.


levels used to analyze ad or imc program

short term outcomes such as sales or redemption rates. long term results (brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand equity). product and brand specific awareness. awareness of overall company. affective responses( liking company and positive brand image)


advertising tracking research

examines ads that have launched. monitor's brand's performance and advertising effectiveness. tests can be performed at specific times or intervals or continuously. provides general measure of effect of media weight, effectiveness of media buys, and quality of ad's message and execution. measures relative impact of message compared tot competition over time.


ad tracking methodology

respondents are shown brief portion of ad with brand name removed or not visible. respondents are asked if they recognize company which measures brand ad and recognition. when unable to identify it, they're given a list of brands which measures aided brand awareness. also measures memorability, likability, unaided and aided message recall, unaided and aided campaign recall.


report cards and benchmarks

report cards shows how new ad performs in comparison to brand's competitors and indicates how well ad performed in relation to those from previous campaigns. benchmarks measure performance over months and years. valuable when new campaign launches because new ads can be compared to previous ads.



elicits responses to main message of ad as well as presentation format. tv and print ads have long been tested using this method.


portfolio test

displays set of print ads containing the one being evaluated.


theater test

displays set of tv ads including one being studied. individuals participating don't know which piece is under scrutiny.


verbatim comments

final pieces of info provided by clients and other agencies. each respondent is asked to present in their own words thoughts about ads. provides written commentary on what people think about ad and what thoughts are foremost from watching ad.


warmth monitor

relies on concept that feelings of warmth are positive when they are directed toward ad or product. to measure warmth, subjects are asked to manipulate joystick or mouse on computer while watching commercial, moving one direction for warmer and another for cooler


biometric research

involves measuring physiological reactions to ads and marketing messages. innerscope company believes unconscious emotional responses direct attention, enhance learning and memory, and drive behaviors that clients care about. device tracks eye movement, heartbeat, perspiration levels, respiration, and body movements. measures emotional engagement of viewers during every second of ad.


cognitive neuroscience

brain image measurement process that tracks brain activity. can indicate preference for coke or pepsi by measuring currents in brain.


positioning advertising copytesting (pact)

evaluates tv ads. principles:

testing procedure should be relevant to ad objectives, in advance of each test researches should agree on how results will be used, multiple measures should be used, test should be based on theory/model of human response communication, testing procedure should allow for more than one exposure to ad, in selecting alt ad to include in test each should be at same stage in process as test ad, test should provide controls to avoid biases, sample used for test should be representative of target sample, testing procedure should demonstrate reliability and validity.


online evaluation metrics

to evaluate digital marketing communications from the internet, number of metrics are available that provide hard and soft data. methods are used such as click throughs, brand awareness, customer knowledge, lead generation, sales, length of engagement, margin, impressions, redemption rates, response rates, and roi


sales and response rates

retailers collect info from universal product codes and scanner data. these data are available on weekly and daily basis for each store. many retail outlets have access to real time sales info that can be assessed at any point during the day. scanner makes it possible for companies to monitor sakes and help both retailer and manufacturer discover impact of particular marketing program.



tracks impact of pop displays. each firm sees impact of pop for its brands and also receives comparative data showing how well display fared against other displays.


toll free numbers

a method of measuring the impact of an ad, direct mailing piece, tv direct offer, or price off discount. toll free number provides contact names to help vendor discover who performs various functions in buying center. provides sales data to determine which marketing program would be vest and generate valuable info that can be tied to sales data


qr codes and fb likes

qr codes allow consumers to access company's website and special deals or info through phone. company can count how many individuals access code and gather info about them. fb likes is a new measure of brand's popularity. number of likes correlates to special offers that are made on the brand's fb page.


response cards

collects customer info as forms are filled out at the time of inquiry. carries disadvantage of providing less data, commercial sources are needed to obtain additional demographic and psychographic info


internet responses

provide quality behavioral measures. marketing team can obtain considerable info about person or business making the inquiry. responses to direct advertising through internet view can be tracked too.


redemption rates

coupons, premiums, contests, sweepstakes, and direct mail pieces can be coded to record redemption rates. marketers review results in light of positive or negative changes in redemption rates


competitive responses

firms may introduce special promotion in test market area in order to confound results. another approach is not intervening in test market but using time to prepare countermarketing campaign.


scanner data

makes it possible for results from test market campaigns to be quickly available. figures help determine acceptability of test market results. scanner data assists marketers to compare sales from each test market to determine which version works best.


purchase test stimulation

presents cost effective approach to examine purchase behaviors. consumers are asked if they would be willing to buy products in variety of ways using various methods. advantage of using test procedures that don't rely on opinions and attitudes.


criteria used to asses imc program

market share, level of innovation, productivity, physical and financial resources, profitability, manager performance and development, employee performance and attitudes, social responsibility.


global implications of evaluation programs

measures of attitudes are hard to collect. sales are easier to assess however inflation rates and other statistics are affected by local conditions. different standards regarding advertising content. some nations view using coupons as sign of poverty.