ch.7 for exam three

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1

compact bone

dense bone

outer shell of long bone

makes up about 3/4ths of skeleton

2

periosteum

outside

external sheath that covers the compact bone except for where there is articular cartilage

3

Blood vessels and the nerves enter and exit the bone through

nutrient foramina

(tiny openings in the Periosteum.)

4

periosteum 2 layers:

Outer fibrous layer of collagen

Inner osteogenic layer

5

Outer fibrous layer of collagen

Strong attachment and continuity from muscle-->tendon-->bone

Some continue with tendon, other’s perforate bone

6

Inner osteogenic layer of bone forming cells

closest to bone

growth of bone and healing of fractures

stem cells--> osteocytes

7

diphysis

shaft

cylinder that covers compact bone

provides leverage

8

medullary cavity

marrow cavity

middle part of shaft

fat cells here

very soft

in adults

9

epiphyses

knobs at end of shaft

it strengthens joints and attach ligaments and tendons

10

spongy (cancellous bone)

  • in Epiphyses
  • compact covers spongy and inside spongy is marrow cavity
  • between compact bone and medullary cavity you will find a layer of spongy bone in diaphysis
  • 1/4ths of skeleton
  • In middle of all bones almost and found in end of long bones
11

articular cartilage

Reduces friction

(each epiphyses is covered by hyaline cartilage at joint and this is articular cartilage; EX: elbow, knee, hip)

12

nutrient foramina

minute holes in the bone surface that allows blood vessels and nerves to penetrate

passageway for nutrients and vessels

13

endosteum

inside

– thin layer of reticular connective tissue lining marrow cavity

14

endosteum has two types of cells:

osteoblasts

osteoclasts

15

osteoblasts

bone forming cells

immature

lay down bown

not mitotic

16

secrete osteocalcin

osteoblast

17

osteoclasts

bone dissolving cells

18

what has a ruffled border?

osteoclasts

19

epiphyseal line

in adults, a bony scar that marks where growth plate used to be

20

epiphseal plate (2)

Growth Plate

growth is initiated from infant to adult (Gives rise to bone)

Area of hyaline cartilage

Covers end of epiphyses and cartilage separates epiphyses from diaphysis

21

short bones

glide across each other in multiple directions

wrist (carpal) bones

22

irregular bones

(don’t fit into any other category)

vertebra and sphenoid

23

flat bones

–protect soft organs

24

four principal types of bone cells

osteogenic ( osteoprogenator ) cells

osteoblasts

osteocytes

osteoclasts

25

Osteogenic cells

bone stem cells

  • Embryonic Mesenchymal Cells
26

osteoblasts

immature

Nonmitotic (they are the only laying down bone)

bone forming cells

27

osteoclasts

Bone dissolving cells found on bone surface

come from macrphage or monocyte (blood forming cells)

28

remodeling

(in osteoclasts)

eat away at the old bone and osteoblasts come in and fill it in, important when bone is remodeling (like pacman)

29

osteocytes

mature; we call them this after they have trapped in the lacanae

30

osteoporosis

is the Imbalance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts

31

Neighboring osteocytes are connected by _____ _________

gap junctions (canaliculi)

32

how do osteoclasts form?

by the fusion of osetogenic (Stem) cells

33

The matrix of osseous tissue is about _____ organic material and about ______ inorganic material.

1/3 organic

2/3 inorganic

34

The organic matter is synthesized by _____________

osteoblasts

35

Bone is a composition, which is made up of

a combination of two basic structural materials --> a polymer and a ceramic

36

In bone, the polymer is the ___________ and the ceramic is the ___________

polymer = collagen

ceramin = hydroxyapatite and other minerals

37

mineral deficiency results in ________

rickets (soft bones)

38

collagen deficiency (protein deficiency) results in _________

osteogenesis imperfecta or brittle bone

39

what does bone marrow do?

make blood cells

40

red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is often referred to as

hemopoietic tissue --> makes red blood cells (white blood cells)

41

red blood cells are produced where?

in the red marrow of bones

42

changing from red to yellow bone marrow is

is reversible depending on your metabolic needs

43

what type of bone has few osteons and no central canals?

spongy bone

44

spongy bone consists of 3 things:

trabeculae, spicules and red bone marrow

45

bone marrow

general term for soft tissue that occupies the marrow cavity of a long bone and small spaces amid the trabeculae of spongy bone

46

T/F: In a child, the marrow cavity of nearly every bone is filled with red bone marrow

true

47

T/F: In adults, most of the red marrow turns to fatty yellow bone marrow

true

48

ossification

formation of bone

49

osteogenesis

another name for ossification

50

In the human fetus and infant, bone develops by two methods

1. Intramembranous ossification

2. Endochondral Ossification

51

Intramembranous ossification

hardening of bone by Replacement of embryonic connective tissue (bone forms within membrane)

52

Intramembranous ossification produces what types of bones

Produces flat bones of skull, scapula, ribs, and clavicle

  • Periosteum, Compact bone, Trabeculae, Red bone marrow
53

Endochondral Ossification makes what type of bone

long bone

54

Endochondral Ossification

Replacement of cartilage

most bones form this way

55

mesenchyme (undifferientated tissue)

embryonic connective tissue condenses into a layer of soft tissue with dense supply of blood capillaries

56

mesenchymal cells differentiate into

osteogenic cells

57

osteogenic cells differentiate into

osteoblasts

58

osteoclasts

resorb and remodel others to form a marrow cavity in the middle of bone

59

in this center there is an invasion of blood vessels, and osteoblast and osteoclast activity

primary ossification center

60

Endochondral Ossification

the bone is preceded by a hyaline cartilage "model" that becomes replaced by osseous tissue

(mesenchyme covered with perichondrium--> develops into hyaline cartilage)

61

mesenchyme covered with fibrous perichondrium process during endochondral ossification:

perichondrium--> chondrocytes--> osteoblasts--> osteoblasts form a bony collar around middle of cartilage model

62

before stem cells can give rise to osteoblasts and clasts in endochondrial ossification

blood vessels penetrate the bony collar and invade primary ossification center

63

endochondral ossification begins around the ______ week of fetal developments and continues into a person's ______

6th

20's

64

The epiphyseal plate is a region of transition from ___________ to ________ and functions as ______________________________

cartilage to bone

and functions as a growth zone where the bones elongate

65

in the Epiphysis ,created by chondrocyte enlargement and death in the epiphyses

Secondary ossification center

66

Bones grow in two directions:

-Length (interstitial growth)

-Width (appositional growth)

67

Length (interstitial growth) happens how?

bone elongation in epiphyseal plate

–bone elongation -->result of cartilage growth within epiphyseal plate

68

epiphyseal line

epiphyses close when cartilage is gone

-length-wise (interstatial) growth is finished

69

Width (appositional growth) happens how?

width increases throughout life

slows down significantly after 20 years, why bones stop growing

70

bone remodeling

occurs throughout life - 10% per year

71

ossification

continues throughout life with the growth and remodeling of bones

72

5 zones of metaphysis

1. Zone of reserve cartilage

2. Zone of cell proliferation
3. Zone of cell hypertrophy
4. Zone of calcification
5. Zone of bone deposition

73

zone of reserve cartilage

farthest from marrow cavity

consists of hyaline cartilage

chondroblasts

74

zone of proliferation

chondrocytes multiply

arrange themselves into longitudinal columns of flattened lacunae

75

Zone of cell hypertrophy

cells grow in size, no longer dividing

76

Zone of calcification

minerals added to matrix

77

Zone of bone deposition

bone matrix is laid down

actual transition to bone

78

achondroplastic dwarfism

–long bones stop growing in childhood

  • normal torso, short limbs

–failure of cartilage growth in metaphysis

79

transition zone

cartilage being replaced by bone

80

Disruptions in the balance between bone deposition and reabsorption during remodeling, can lead to what bone deformities?

1. Paget's disease

2. osteogenesis imperfecta

3. kyphosis

4. osteoporosis

81

kyphosis

widow's hump

82

paget's disease

Large, misshapen bones

Weaker than normal bones (easy to break); can happen in only one limb

83

Wolff s law of bone

architecture of bone determined by mechanical stresses placed on it and bones adapt to withstand those stresses

84

mineral depostion (mineralization)

a crystallization process in which calcium, phosphate, and other ions are taken from the blood plasma and deposited in bone tissue

85

Abnormal ossification/ calcification

is when you get mineralization in soft tissue and it is called calculus

86

pituitary dwarfism

–lack of growth hormone

–normal proportions with short stature

87

mineral resorption

the process of dissolving bone; releases minerals into the blood and makes them available for other uses

88

reabsorbtion is carried out by__________

osteoclasts

89

hypocalcemia

blood calcium deficiency

90

hypercalcemia

blood calcium excess

  • sodium channels less responsive and nerve and muscle less excitable than normal (sluggish reflexes, depression)
91

lordosis

-aka swayback

-exaggerated lumbar curvature
-common in pregnancy
-associated with rapid weight gain

92

hypercalcemia is________ vs. hypocalcemia that has a wide variety of causes

  • is rare
93

hypocalcemia causes

–vitamin D deficiency

–diarrhea

–thyroid tumors

–underactive parathyroids

–pregnancy and lactation

–accidental removal of parathyroid glands during thyroid surgery

94

calcium homeostasis

depends on a balance between dietary intake, urinary and fecal loses, and exchanges between osseous tissue

95

Calcium Homeostasis is regulated by three hormones:

1. calcitriol

2. calcitonin

3. parathyroid hormone

96

Calcitriol (Activated Vitamin D)

will cause blood calcium levels to increase

  • behave like a hormone that raises the blood calcium concentration
  • a form of vitamin D produced by the sequential action of the skin, liver, and kidneys
97

calcitriol increases calcium levels in the blood in 3 ways:

1. increases calcium absorption by small intestine

2. increases calcium resorption from the skeleton

3. promotes kidney reabsorption of calcium ions (so less urine lost)

98

calcitonin

lowers blood calcium concentration

  • secreted by C cells (clear cells) of the thyroid gland when calcium concentration rises too high
99

calcitonin lowers blood calcium concetration in 2 ways:

1. osteoclast inhibition

2. osteoblast stimulation

100

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

increases blood calcium concentration

– secreted by the parathyroid glands which adhere to the posterior surface of thyroid gland

101

parathyroid hormone (PTH) raises blood concentration in 4 ways:

1.binds to receptors on osteoblasts

2.promotes calcium reabsorption by the kidneys

3.promotes the final step of calcitriol synthesis (calcium raising effect of calcitriol)

4.inhibits collagen synthesis by osteoblasts (stops bone depostion)

102

when the parathroid hormone binds to receptors on osteoblasts it

stimulating them to secrete RANKL which raises the osteoclast population

103

___________ ___raises or lowers?_______ blood phosphate level by promoting its urinary excretion

PTH

lowers

104

anabolic steroids

cause growth to stop

105

stress fracture

– break caused by abnormal trauma to a bone

–falls, athletics, and military combat

106

pathological fracture

– break in a bone weakened by some other disease

–bone cancer or osteoporosis

–usually caused by stress that would not break a healthy bone

107

fractures classified by structural characteristics, they are:

–direction of fracture line

–break in the skin

–multiple pieces

108

5 types of fractures:

1. non displaced

2. displaced

3. Comminuted

4. green stick

5. buckle

109

non displaced fracture is

break, no tear in skin

still in same spot

110

displaced fracture

breaks through skin

needs to be reset

111

comminuted fracture

multiple peices broken off

112

greenstick fracture

bend but no break

not a complete break

sudden

113

buckle fracture

bone buckles

due to pressure

114

Uncomplicated fractures take how long to heal?

normally 8 - 12 weeks

115

Steps of fracture healing

1. hematoma formation (within 48 hours)

2. soft callus formation
3. hard callus formation
4. bone remodeling

116

closed reduction

procedure in which the bone fragments are manipulated into their normal positions without surgery

(put on cast and let you go about your business)

117

open reduction

involves surgical exposure of the bone and the use of plates, screws, or pins to realign the fragments

118

cast

normally used to stabilize and immobilize healing bone

119

traction

used to treat fractures of the femur in children

–aligns bone fragments by overriding force of the strong thigh muscles

risks long-term confinement to bed

120

a bone that is cuboidal in shape

a short bone

121

Which bone develops by intramembranous ossification?A)vertebrae

B)cranium

C)pelvis

D)humerus

E)femur

B)cranium

122

Which vitamin normally functions as a hormone?A)Vitamin A

B)Vitamin C

C)Vitamin D

D)Vitamin E

C)Vitamin D

123

What would happen if the parathyroid glands were removed and no hormone replacement therapy were initiated?

A)Blood calcium could increase to dangerous levels.

B)Blood calcium could increase slightly, but not cause dangerous results.

C)Blood calcium could drop to dangerous levels

.D)No effects would result; the thyroid would take over its job.

C)Blood calcium could drop to dangerous levels

124

osteomalacia is

the adult form of rickets, that is the softening and deformation of bone

125

Which condition results from little exercise and lack of estrogen after menopause?

A)osteomalacia

B)osteoporosis

C)rickets

D)Paget's disease

E)chondrosarcoma

B)osteoporosis

126

Parathyroid hormone raises blood calcium concentration by all of the following except

A)stimulating the dissolving of bone matrix.

B)increasing the number of osteoclasts.

C)reducing calcium excretion.

D)inhibiting osteoblasts.

E)increasing vitamin D excretion.

D)inhibiting osteoblasts.

127

Functions of the skeletal system include all of the following except

A)acid-base balance.

B)blood cell production.

C)produce hormones which regulate blood glucose.

D)hemopoiesis.

E)regulation of certain electrolytes.

C)produce hormones which regulate blood glucose

128

Which large multinucleate cells found in bones secrete enzymes to reabsorb matrix?

A)osteoclasts

B)osteocytes

C)osteoblasts

D)osteoprogenitors

E)chondrocytes

A)osteoclasts

129

Blood cells develop in which region of a bone?A)epiphysis

B)diaphysis

C)yellow marrow

D)red marrow

E)epiphyseal plate

D)red marrow

130

In which of the histological zones of a developing long bone would you find osteoclasts?

A)zone of cell proliferation

B)zone of bone deposition

C)zone of calcified cartilage

D)zone of cell hypertrophy

B)zone of bone deposition

131

The first step in making a long bone such as the femur is

A)primary marrow space forms.

B)chondrocytes in metaphysis calcify.

C)chondrocytes in metaphysis hypertrophy.

D)hyaline cartilage model is formed

.E)secondary ossification.

hyaline cartilage model is formed.

132

In which dominant genetic condition do the chondrocytes fail to multiply?

A)pituitary gigantism

B)achondroplasia

C)Paget's disease

D)rickets

E)osteoporosis

B)achondroplasia

133

All of these organs or organ systems participate in vitamin D production or activation except

A)the heart

.B)the parathyroid glands.

C)the skin.

D)the liver.

E)the kidneys.

A)the heart