Major Mineral: Sodium
With chloride and potassium (electrolytes) maintain cells normal fluid balance and acid-base balance in body. also crtitical to nerve impluse transmission.
Deficiency: Muscle Cramps, mental apathy, loss of apetite
Food Sources: Salt, soy sauce, processed foods
Major Mineral: Chloride
Part of hydrochloric acid found in stomach and necessary for proper digestion.
Deficiency: Growth failure in children; muscle cramps, mental apathy, loss of appetite, can cause death
Toxicity: normally harmles (the gas is poison), can cause vomiting
Food sources: Salt Soy sauce, unprocessed foods, & processed foods
Major Mineral: Potassium
Facilitates reactions, including making protein, fluid and electrolyte balance, support cell integrity, transmission of nerve impulses, and contraction of muscles including heart.
Deficiencies dehydration, muscular weakness, paralysis, and confusion, can cause death.
Toxicity: muscular weakness, triggers vomiting, if given into a vein, can stop heart.
Food Sources: all whole foods, meats, milk, fruits, veggies, grains legumes
Major mineral: Calcium
Principal mineral of bone and teeth. Acts in normal muscle contraction and relaxation, nerve functioning, blood clotting, blood pressure, and immune defenses.
Deficiency: Stunted growth in children; adult bone loss (osteoporosis)
Toxicity: Constipation, urinary stone formation and kidney dysfunction; interference with absorption of other minerals
Food Source: Milk and milk products, oysters, small fish, tofu, green, legumes
Major Mineral: Phosphorus
Important in cells genetic material, in cell membranes as phospholipids, in energy transfer, and in buffering systems.
Toxicity: may cause calcium excretion
Food sources: all animal tissues
Major Mineral: Magnesium
Bone mineralization; building of protein, enzyme action, normal muscle contraction, transmission of nerve impulses, and maintenance of teeth.
Deficiency: Weakness, confusion, if extreme: convulsions, bizarre movements (esp of eyes and face) hallucination, difficulty swallowing. IN children: growth failure.
Toxicity: Large doses taken in laxative form Epsom, diarrhea
Food Sources: Nuts, Legumes, whole grains, dark green veggies, seafoods, chocolate, cocoa
Major Mineral: Sulfur
A component of certain amino acids; part of vitamins Biotin and thiamin, and hormone insulin; combines with toxic substances to form harmless compounds; stabilizes protein shape
deficiency: none known
toxicity: only if eaten in excess , depresses growth ( in animals)
Food Sources: all protein-containing foods
What are the 6 classes of nutrients?
Water, Carbs, fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals
How is energy measured?
Which nutrients contain carbon(being organic)?
Carbs, fats, proteins, and vitamins
What are six characteristics of a nutritious diet?
adequacy, balance, kcalorie control, nutrient density, moderation, and variety.
What is the Gastrointestinal Tract (GI)?
a flexible muscular tube extending from the mouth to the anus.
What are the 2 essential fatty acids?
Linoleic Acid (Omega- 6), found in seeds of plants, nuts, veg oil and
Linolenic Acid (Omega - 3) found in fish oils
they are polyunsaturated
they act as emulsifiers, helping to keep other fats in solution in the watery blood and body fluids.
large complex molecules consisting of interconnected rings of carbon;
One of the 3 main classes of Lipids, incudles choloesterol, VItamin D, and sex hormones
Animal derived foods contain significant amounts of cholesterol (meats, egg, fish, dairy) Organ meats, liver & Kidneys & eggs are the highest.
It is non-essential, the body can make cholesterol
a compound made by liver from cholesterol and stored in the gall bladder. Bile prepares fat for digestion.
Raises LDL and Lowers HDL and produces inflammation
found in fast food, processed food, chips, cookies
What minerals may vegans lack?
Iron and zinc
What vitamin may vegetartians lack?
B12 bc it's from animals only. also Vitamin D & riboflavin if they are vegan and don't drink milk, don't go outside or don't eat leafy greens
an enzyme that promotes fat storage in fat cells and muscle cells
a hormone produced by fat cells under direction of ob gene, It decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure. In obese kids, this hormone is is barely detected.
acts opposite of leptin; a hormone produced by stomach cells and signals to hypothalamus of the brain to stimulate appetite and food intake.
Set point Theory
theory that the body tends to maintain a certain weight by means of its own internal control.
essential nonkcaloric nutrients that are needed in trace amounts in diet to help facilitate body processes.
They do not give energy, but help to burn that fuel. 8 b vitamins. each part of an enzyme helper, called coenzyme.
Active form of B Vitamins
Thiamin riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, and biotin- these participate in the release of energy from carbs, fat and protein
coenzyme, that metabolize amino acids
making of new cells
depends on folate, making new cells
Trace Mineral: Iron
part of protein hemoglobin; carries oxygen to blood;
Deficiency: anemia: weakness pallor, headaches, inability to concentrate
Toxicity: infections, liver injury, shock, increased risk of heart attack
sources: red meats, fish, poultry, shellfish, eggs, legumes, dried fruits
Trace mineral: Zinc
Part of hormone Insulin and many enzymes; makes genetic material and proteins, transports vitamin A
Deficiency: growth failure in children; sexual retardation, poor wound healing; loss of taste
Toxicity: fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anemia, dizziness
sources: protein-containing foods: meats, fish, shellfish poultry grains, veggies
Trace Mineral: Selenium
Assists a group of enzymes that break down reactive chemicals that harm cells
deficiency: predisposition to heart disease by cardiac tissue becoming fibrous
toxicity: nausea, abdominal pain, nail and hair changes, nerve damage
sources: seafoods, organ meats, other meats, whole grains and veggies depending on soil content
Trace Mineral: Iodine
A component of 2 thyroid hormones, helps regulate growth, development, and metabolic rate
Deficiency: goiter, cretinism
toxicity: depressed thyroid activity, goiterlike thyroid enlargement
Source: Iodized salt, seafood, bread, plants and animals who eat the plants
Trace Mineral: Copper
needed for absorption & use of iron in the formation of hemoglobin
Deficiency: anemia, bone abnormalities,
toxicity: vomiting, diarrhea, liver damage
Source: organ meat, seafood, nuts, seeds, whole grains, drinking water
Trace Mineral: Manganese
Facilitator, with enzymes of many cell processes
Deficiency: (in experimental animals) poor growth, nervous system disorders, reproductive abnormalitiies
Toxicity: Nervous System Disorders
source: wide distribution in foods
Trace Mineral: Fluoride
Formation of teeth & bones, make teeth resistant to decay
Deficiency: tooth decay
toxicity: Fluorosis (discoloration of teeth) nausea, diarrhea, chest pain, itching
Source: drinking water ( or fluoridated tea, seafood
Trace Mineral: Chromium
associated with insulin and required for release of energy from glucose
deficiency: diabetes like condition
Source: Meat, unrefined foods
A Condition characterized by abnormal immune reaction to wheat gluten that causes sever intestinal damage and nutrient malabsorption
A family of water insoluble proteins in wheat. The protein in wheat gluten has toxic effects in celiac disease is called gliadin
eliminates food that contain wheat, barley, & rye
can eat: breads, baked products, and cereals made with corn, rice, soy, potato starch, potato flour, hominy, buckwheat, millet, teff, sorghum, quinoa, arrowroot, pasta and noodles from grains or starches listed above, corn tacos & tortillas
AVOID: wheat, rye, barley, spelt, kamut, wheat germ, wheat bran, graham flour, durum flour, wheat starch, bulgur, commercially prepared: biscuits, cornbread, muffins, pancakes, waffles, malts pretzels matzo.