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created 6 years ago by brewcrew30
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Major Mineral: Sodium

With chloride and potassium (electrolytes) maintain cells normal fluid balance and acid-base balance in body. also crtitical to nerve impluse transmission.

Deficiency: Muscle Cramps, mental apathy, loss of apetite

Toxicity: Hypertension

Food Sources: Salt, soy sauce, processed foods


Major Mineral: Chloride

Part of hydrochloric acid found in stomach and necessary for proper digestion.

Deficiency: Growth failure in children; muscle cramps, mental apathy, loss of appetite, can cause death

Toxicity: normally harmles (the gas is poison), can cause vomiting

Food sources: Salt Soy sauce, unprocessed foods, & processed foods


Major Mineral: Potassium

Facilitates reactions, including making protein, fluid and electrolyte balance, support cell integrity, transmission of nerve impulses, and contraction of muscles including heart.

Deficiencies dehydration, muscular weakness, paralysis, and confusion, can cause death.

Toxicity: muscular weakness, triggers vomiting, if given into a vein, can stop heart.

Food Sources: all whole foods, meats, milk, fruits, veggies, grains legumes


Major mineral: Calcium

Principal mineral of bone and teeth. Acts in normal muscle contraction and relaxation, nerve functioning, blood clotting, blood pressure, and immune defenses.

Deficiency: Stunted growth in children; adult bone loss (osteoporosis)

Toxicity: Constipation, urinary stone formation and kidney dysfunction; interference with absorption of other minerals

Food Source: Milk and milk products, oysters, small fish, tofu, green, legumes


Major Mineral: Phosphorus

Important in cells genetic material, in cell membranes as phospholipids, in energy transfer, and in buffering systems.

Deficiency: unknown

Toxicity: may cause calcium excretion

Food sources: all animal tissues


Major Mineral: Magnesium

Bone mineralization; building of protein, enzyme action, normal muscle contraction, transmission of nerve impulses, and maintenance of teeth.

Deficiency: Weakness, confusion, if extreme: convulsions, bizarre movements (esp of eyes and face) hallucination, difficulty swallowing. IN children: growth failure.

Toxicity: Large doses taken in laxative form Epsom, diarrhea

Food Sources: Nuts, Legumes, whole grains, dark green veggies, seafoods, chocolate, cocoa


Major Mineral: Sulfur

A component of certain amino acids; part of vitamins Biotin and thiamin, and hormone insulin; combines with toxic substances to form harmless compounds; stabilizes protein shape

deficiency: none known

toxicity: only if eaten in excess , depresses growth ( in animals)

Food Sources: all protein-containing foods


What are the 6 classes of nutrients?

Water, Carbs, fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals


How is energy measured?

In kCalories


Which nutrients contain carbon(being organic)?

Carbs, fats, proteins, and vitamins


What are six characteristics of a nutritious diet?

adequacy, balance, kcalorie control, nutrient density, moderation, and variety.


What is the Gastrointestinal Tract (GI)?

a flexible muscular tube extending from the mouth to the anus.


What are the 2 essential fatty acids?

Linoleic Acid (Omega- 6), found in seeds of plants, nuts, veg oil and

Linolenic Acid (Omega - 3) found in fish oils

they are polyunsaturated



they act as emulsifiers, helping to keep other fats in solution in the watery blood and body fluids.



large complex molecules consisting of interconnected rings of carbon;

One of the 3 main classes of Lipids, incudles choloesterol, VItamin D, and sex hormones

Animal derived foods contain significant amounts of cholesterol (meats, egg, fish, dairy) Organ meats, liver & Kidneys & eggs are the highest.

It is non-essential, the body can make cholesterol



a compound made by liver from cholesterol and stored in the gall bladder. Bile prepares fat for digestion.


Trans-fatty acid

Raises LDL and Lowers HDL and produces inflammation

found in fast food, processed food, chips, cookies


What minerals may vegans lack?

Iron and zinc


What vitamin may vegetartians lack?

B12 bc it's from animals only. also Vitamin D & riboflavin if they are vegan and don't drink milk, don't go outside or don't eat leafy greens


Lipoprotein Lipase

an enzyme that promotes fat storage in fat cells and muscle cells



a hormone produced by fat cells under direction of ob gene, It decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure. In obese kids, this hormone is is barely detected.



acts opposite of leptin; a hormone produced by stomach cells and signals to hypothalamus of the brain to stimulate appetite and food intake.


Set point Theory

theory that the body tends to maintain a certain weight by means of its own internal control.



essential nonkcaloric nutrients that are needed in trace amounts in diet to help facilitate body processes.


B Vitamins

They do not give energy, but help to burn that fuel. 8 b vitamins. each part of an enzyme helper, called coenzyme.


Active form of B Vitamins

Thiamin riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, and biotin- these participate in the release of energy from carbs, fat and protein



coenzyme, that metabolize amino acids



making of new cells



depends on folate, making new cells


Trace Mineral: Iron

part of protein hemoglobin; carries oxygen to blood;

Deficiency: anemia: weakness pallor, headaches, inability to concentrate

Toxicity: infections, liver injury, shock, increased risk of heart attack

sources: red meats, fish, poultry, shellfish, eggs, legumes, dried fruits


Trace mineral: Zinc

Part of hormone Insulin and many enzymes; makes genetic material and proteins, transports vitamin A

Deficiency: growth failure in children; sexual retardation, poor wound healing; loss of taste

Toxicity: fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anemia, dizziness

sources: protein-containing foods: meats, fish, shellfish poultry grains, veggies


Trace Mineral: Selenium

Assists a group of enzymes that break down reactive chemicals that harm cells

deficiency: predisposition to heart disease by cardiac tissue becoming fibrous

toxicity: nausea, abdominal pain, nail and hair changes, nerve damage

sources: seafoods, organ meats, other meats, whole grains and veggies depending on soil content


Trace Mineral: Iodine

A component of 2 thyroid hormones, helps regulate growth, development, and metabolic rate

Deficiency: goiter, cretinism

toxicity: depressed thyroid activity, goiterlike thyroid enlargement

Source: Iodized salt, seafood, bread, plants and animals who eat the plants


Trace Mineral: Copper

needed for absorption & use of iron in the formation of hemoglobin

Deficiency: anemia, bone abnormalities,

toxicity: vomiting, diarrhea, liver damage

Source: organ meat, seafood, nuts, seeds, whole grains, drinking water


Trace Mineral: Manganese

Facilitator, with enzymes of many cell processes

Deficiency: (in experimental animals) poor growth, nervous system disorders, reproductive abnormalitiies

Toxicity: Nervous System Disorders

source: wide distribution in foods


Trace Mineral: Fluoride

Formation of teeth & bones, make teeth resistant to decay

Deficiency: tooth decay

toxicity: Fluorosis (discoloration of teeth) nausea, diarrhea, chest pain, itching

Source: drinking water ( or fluoridated tea, seafood


Trace Mineral: Chromium

associated with insulin and required for release of energy from glucose

deficiency: diabetes like condition

toxicity: none

Source: Meat, unrefined foods


Celiac Disease

A Condition characterized by abnormal immune reaction to wheat gluten that causes sever intestinal damage and nutrient malabsorption


Wheat Gluten

A family of water insoluble proteins in wheat. The protein in wheat gluten has toxic effects in celiac disease is called gliadin


Gluten-Free Diet

eliminates food that contain wheat, barley, & rye

can eat: breads, baked products, and cereals made with corn, rice, soy, potato starch, potato flour, hominy, buckwheat, millet, teff, sorghum, quinoa, arrowroot, pasta and noodles from grains or starches listed above, corn tacos & tortillas

AVOID: wheat, rye, barley, spelt, kamut, wheat germ, wheat bran, graham flour, durum flour, wheat starch, bulgur, commercially prepared: biscuits, cornbread, muffins, pancakes, waffles, malts pretzels matzo.