ch.6 test material for exam 2

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final review integumentary system
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1

introduction to integumentary system

- Skin if most vulnerable organ

- Receives more medical treatment than any other organ system

2

dermatology

Scientific study and medical treatment of the integumentary system

3

overview of integumentary system

  • consists of the skin and its accessory organs

–hair, nails, and cutaneous glands

4

Functions/Structure of the Skin

  • Resistance to trauma and infection
    • Keratin,Low pH
    • Acid mantle of the skin
  • barrier functions
    • Waterproof
    • UV radiation from sun
    • harmful Chemicals
  • Vitamin D synthesis
  • Sensation
  • Thermoregulation: Conserve heat
  • Nonverbal Communication: Expressions on faces
  • Transdermal Absorption: Patch of something that the skin takes in (birth control,Nicotine patch)
5

The Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue

  • The body’s largest and heaviest organ
  • two layers: –epidermis – stratified squamous epithelium –dermis – connective tissue layer
6

epidermis

– stratified squamous epithelium

  1. Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  2. Dead cells (top layer of packed dead cells= keratin)
  3. No nucleus
  4. No blood vessels
  5. Relies on diffusion of nutrients from bottom layers (underlying connective tissue)
7

dermis

– connective tissue layer

1. Blood vessels

2. Nerve endings

8

hypodermis

– another connective tissue layer below the dermis

– Not considered a layer of skin

9

Thick Skin (palms and soles only)

1. Do not have hair follicles or sebaceous (oily) glands

2. Do have sweat glands

3. Nonkeratinized (will gain water, why it gets wrinkly after shower)

10

Thin Skin (everything else)

  1. Keratinized
  2. Have hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands
  3. No Lucidum layer
11

five types of cells of the epidermis

1. stem cells (deepest)

2. melanocytes= make melanin

3. tactile cells= merkel cells

4. Dendritic Cell = immune cells of the skins

5. keratinocytes (living & nonliving)= make keratin

  • Living Keratinocytes: A little deeper down
  • Dead Keratinocytes: At the top. No nuclei; have lots of keratin which keeps water out
12

melanocytes

  • Determine skin color
  • secrete melanin
  • occur only in stratum basale
  • cell of epidermis
13

layers of epidermis

1. Stratum Basale

2.Stratum Spinosum

3.Stratum Granulosum

4. Stratum Lucidum

5. Stratum Corneum

14

Stratum Basale

  • layer of epidermis
  • a single layer of cuboidal/columnar stem cells and keratinocytes resting on the basement membrane
  • stem cells of stratum basale divide –give rise to keratinocytes that migrate toward skin surface
  • stem cells are there to replace keratinocytes
15

Stratum Spinosum

  • layer or epidermis
  • several layers of keratinocytes
  • Active keratinocytes undergo mitosis until they get up to the next layer
  • thickest stratum in most skin
  • make keratin filaments which causes cell to flatten
  • dendritic cells
16

Stratum Granulosum

  • of 3 to 5 layers flat keratinocytes
  • dark-staining keratohyalin granules
    • rise to elcidin then they give rise to keratin
17

Stratum Lucidum

  • layer of epidermis
  • Layer that is translucent
  • only seen in palms (thick skin)
  • keratinocytes are densely packed with eleidin
18

Stratum Corneum

  • layer of epidermis
  • Has keratinized stratified squamous cells
  • Swept off when exfoliating, rubbing, etc.
  • up to 30 layers of dead cells
  • resistant to abrasion, penetration, and water loss
19

Dermis

  • Connective tissue layer beneath the epidermis
  • well supplied with blood vessels, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and nerve endings
  • Hair Follicles and Nail Roots are embedded in dermis
  • Smooth Muscle (piloerector muscles)
    • What gives us Goose Bumps
  • composed mainly of collagen with elastic fibers, reticular fibers, and fibroblasts
20

Dermal Papillae

  • part of the dermis
  • Upward fingerlike extensions of the dermis
  • What gives you your fingerprint (gives you those ridges)
21

Papillary Layer

Superficial zone of dermis

22

reticular layer

– deeper and much thicker layer of dermis

Stretch marks (striae): like in pregnancy

23

The Hypodermis

Subcutaneous tissue (connective tissue)

- Drugs introduced by injection

  1. Where most of your blood vessels are so the injection will be able to go all throughout body
  2. Highly vascular and absorbs them quickly

- Subcutaneous Fat

  1. Provides padding
24

Skin Color

melanin

Produced by melanocytes

Accumulates in the keratinocytes of stratum basale and stratum spinosum

People of different skin colors have the same number of melanocytes

Amount of melanin also varies with exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight

25

Two forms of melanin

Eumelanin: Brownish black pigment

Pheomelanin: A reddish yellow sulfur-containing pigment

26

Other Factors in Skin Color

carotene= Yellow pigment acquired from egg yolks and yellow/orange vegetables

hemoglobin= Red pigment of red blood cells

27

Cyanosis

blueness of skin

from deficiency of oxygen in the circulating blood

28

erythema

– abnormal redness of the skin due to dilated cutaneous vessels

(can happen when you exercise, are embarrassed)

29

Pallor

Pale

anemia

or ashen color when there is so little blood flow through the skin that the white color of dermal collagen is visible

30

Albinism

Genetic lack of melanin that results in white hair, pale skin and pink eyes

31

Jaundice

Yellowing of skin and sclera due to excess of bilirubin in blood

32

Hematoma (Bruise):

Mass of clotted blood showing through skin

33

Hair and Nails

-made of dead, keratinized cells

34

pilus

another name for hair

35

hair

-slender filament of kertainized cells that grow out of a tube called a hair follicle

36

3 types of hair grow over the course of our lives:

1. lanugo = on a fetus, unpigmented hair, very fine

2.vellus = fine, pale hair that replaces lanugo by the time of birth

3. termnal = longer & coarse, more heavily pigmented

37

Hair is divisible into three zones along its length

1. Bulb: Bottom part shaped like a bulb (where the cells are actually living

2. Root: Under the skin that we cant see

3. Shaft: Out of the skin, what we can see

38

Hair Color

Color: Due to varying concentration of pigment granules in the cells of the cortex

  • Gary and white hair results from scarcity of absence of melanin in the cortex and the presence of air in the medulla
  • eumelanin and pheomelanin
39

hair cylcle

consists of 3 stages

1. anagen

2. catagen

3. telogen

40

Alopecia

Thinning of the hair or baldness

41

Hyponychium

Epidermis of the nail bed

42

Eponychium (cuticle)

Dead skin that comes up over the nail

43

Cutaneous Glands

(Skin has 5 types of glands:)

1. merocrine sweat glands

2. apocrine sweat glands

3. sebacious glands

4. ceruminous glands

5. mammary glands

44

merocrine sweat gland

(eccrine gland)

  1. cutaneous gland
  2. Have myoepithelial glands
45

apocrine sweat gland

  1. cutaneous gland
  2. Have myoepithelial glands
  3. Have pheromones: respond to sexual behavior
  4. Bromhidrosis: body odor due to glandular secretion combined with bacteria
46

sebacious glands

  1. cutaneous gland
  2. Glands that help give oily sheen to skin and scalp
  3. Secrete sebum (oil) and lanolin (sheep oil)
47

ceruminous glands

  1. cutaneous gland
  2. Only found in external ear
  3. Secrete a product when combined with sebum + dead cells + ceruminus fluid = ear wax (cerumin)
48

mammary glands

  1. cutaneous gland
  2. Are just modified fat
  3. In females we have mammary glands that produce milk to help feed the newborn
49

Skin Cancer

  • induced by the ultraviolet rays of the sun
50

three types of skin cancer named for the epidermal cells in which they originate. they are:

1. basal cell carcinoma

2. squamous cell carcinoma

3. malignant melanoma

51

basal cell carcinoma

  1. Most common type
  2. Forms from cells in stratum basale
  3. Least dangerous type of carcinoma
  4. Upper areas of the body
52

squamous cell carcinoma

  1. Cells in Stratum Spinosum
  2. Arise from keratinocytes from stratum spinosum
  3. Tends to metastasize to lymph nodes and may become lethal
53

malignant melanoma

  1. Cells in Melanocytes
  2. Skin Cancer that arises from melanocytes; often in a preexisting mole
  3. Most Deadly form
  4. Treated surgically if caught early
  5. Metastasizes rapidly; if unresponsive to chemotherapy, usually fatal
54

Burns

Leading death cause of accidental death

  1. Deaths result primarily from fluid loss, infection, and toxic effects of eschar (burned, dead tissue)
  2. Debridement: removal of eschar
55

1st degree burn

epidermis (partial thickness)

56

2nd degree burn

epidermis and partially into dermis

57

3rd degree burn

epidermis, dermis, and reaches hypodermis (full thickness burn)

Requires a skin graft (replace your skin)

58

skin Graft Options:

-Autograft: Tissue taken from another location on the same person’s body

-Isograft: Skin from identical twin

-Temporary Graft: From another person

  1. Homograft (allograft): From unrelated person
  2. Heterograft (xenograft): From another species

In labs, experimenting with Silicone and collagen to produce artificial skin

When a person starts to heal, they remove the graft

59

which layer is absent in skin?

stratum corneum

60

the dividing layer that contain dividing cells is

stratum basale

61

Which of the following does not contribute to skin color?

A)carotene

B)bilirubin

C)erythrocytes

D)melanin

E)hair color

E)hair color

62

These skin glands protect the ear.

cerumonius glands

63

Which type of skin graft is unlikely to cause an immune reaction?

isograft

64

blonde hair

has a sparse amount of melanin in the cortex.

65

The single layer of cells that make up the stratum basale of the epidermis contains all of the following cell types except

A)melanocytes.

B)keratinocytes.

C)Merkel cells.

D)fibroblasts.

C)Merkel cells.

66

Which of the following types of cells divides by mitosis to replace the dead cells that exfoliate from the surface of your skin?

keratinocytes

67

Which layer is responsible for fingerprints?

dermis

68

The epidermal layer that is dead and keratinized is the

stratum corneum

69

The major skin layer that normally has the greatest amount of adipocytes is the

hypodermis

70

Cutaneous vasodilation is in response to

very warm conditions

71

Which part of the nail represents the growth zone?

nail matrix

72

Of the three types of hair we grow during our lives, which type is pigmented?

terminal

73

Fingernails grow about 1mm/week due to mitosis of cells in the

A)nail plate.

B)nail matrix.

C)eponychium.

D)hyponychium.

B)nail matrix.

74

Smooth muscle bundles attached to the hair root sheath are called

arrector pili

75

Which of the following statements about sweat glands is incorrect?

A)A milky perspiration containing fatty acids is secreted by merocrine sweat glands.

B)Sweat glands are simple tubular glands lined by stratified cuboidal epithelium and emptied by a duct.

C)Apocrine glands open onto hair follicles rather than a sweat pore.

D)The 500 ml of insensible perspiration that we produce each day does not produce a wetness of the skin.

A)A milky perspiration containing fatty acids is secreted by merocrine sweat glands.

76

Which of the following has an excretory function?

A)eccrine sweat gland

B)mammary glands

C)sebaceous gland

D)endocrine glands

A)eccrine sweat gland

77

The oily secretion that prevents the skin from drying and cracking is

sebum

78

Which of the following is a fungus infection of the skin?

A)warts

B)ringworm

C)psoriasis

D)acne

B)ringworm

79

Which of the following types of skin cancer is the least dangerous because it seldom metastasizes?

A)basal cell carcinoma

B)squamous cell carcinoma

C)malignant melanoma

D)Kaposi sarcoma

A)basal cell carcinoma