Lecture Test 4

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1

Fungi

- Lack chlorophyll

- contain chitin

- most not truly multicellular

- Fungi are heterotrophic as saprophyes (decomposers)

- Molds can grow as long, tangled filaments of cells

- Some are dimorphic

2

Dimorphic

Can live as yeast or mold

3

Mycorrhazie

Live in mutualistic symbiosis with Plant roots.

- Help take up water and minerals

4

Endophytes

live in plant tissues particuarly leaves

5

Sporulation

Occurs in fruiting bodies

- asexual reproductive structures develop at the ends of specialized hyphae

asexual spores (sporangiospores) develop in sacs called sporangia and

others produce, conidia, unprotected spores

6

Arthrospores

Fragmentation of hyphae

7

Budding

A blastospore develops from the parent cell

8

Heterokaryon

Opposite mating types come together and fuse (sexual reproduction of fungi) forming a diploid zygospore

9

Ascomycota

account for 75% of fungi

Penicllin

Aspergillus

Candida alabicans

Saccharmyces cerrvise

fungi that produce aflatoxin (?)

10

Ascomycetes can reproduce

asexual - conidia

sexual - ascospores

11

Lichens

Mutualistic association between fungi (usually ascomycota) and a photosynthetic organism

12

Basidomycota

are the club fungi

13

Yeast

represent a term for any single-celled stage of a fungus

14

Mycotoxins

Fungal toxins

15

Aflotoxins ?

Carcinogenic Aspergillus that contaminate many agricultural products

ex: Soy beans and peanuts

16

Ergotism

Casued by mushroom which grows on grains.

Can cause:

numbness

hot and cold sensations

seizures

paralysis of nerve endings

17

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)

is a derivative of an alkaloid in ergot

18

Amanita

Causes 90% of death by mushroom

can lead to liver and kidney failure

19

Dermatophytosis

is an infection of the body surface

Trasmitted via: contact with animals

fomites like floor, mats or towels

Symptoms: blister-like lessions with a thin fluid discharge

Treatment: chaning skin pH and moisture

20

Vulvovaginitis

Yeast infection

Symptoms: itching, burning, reddness, swelling & discharge

21

Onychia?

hardening, browning and distortion of fingernails

22

Sporotrichosis

Sporothrix schenckii

Occupational hazard

Can come from thorn of wood, soil

Infection with spores can cause pus-filed lessions

23

Cryptococcosis (urban, lower respiratory tract disease)

usually immunocompromised individulas

Cause: Cryptococcosis neoformans

Source : urban soil as a result of pigeon droppings

Aresol - inhalled spores penetrate aveoli

sometimes can pass into the bloodstream, infecting brain and meninges

24

Histoplasmosis (rural)

Can produce systemic disease

Cause: Histoplasma capsulatum

Source: dry, dusty soil, chicken cops, and bat caves

Symptoms: mild influenza symptoms

* Serious in AIDS patients

25

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)

Can cause lethal pneumonia

- common infection in AIDS patients

- Complex life cycle in alveoli

- Transmitted: Aerosol through respiratory droplets

P. Jiroveci

26

Protists

...

27

Protists

- Most are unicellular

- Most are free living, thriving in water

28

Amoebas

mostly free-living single cells

move via psuodopds

29

Entoamoeba hystolitica ?

Causes amoebic dysentary

- 3rd ? leading casue of death due to parasite infection

Parasite breaks through intestinal cell wall?

30

Leishmania

Cause cutaneous and visceral infection

Source: Phlebotomus sand fly

31

Leishmania major

cutaneous disease with ulcerative sores

32

Leishmanie donovani (Kal azar)

visceral disease affecting:

- white blood cells

- spleen

- liver

33

Giardiasis

Cause: Giardia intestinalis

***most common intestinal parastic infection in US***

Trasmission: Food or water contaminated with sewage conatinh cycts

Trophozites emerge and attach to intestinal lininh

- symptoms appear after 7 days

- Nausae, cramps, flatulence, diarrhae

34

Trichomoniasis

Cause: Trichomonas vaginalis

Transmission: sex

Male can be asymptomatic

Females- itching, burning, & irregular discharge

35

Plasmodium

Malaria affects 300-500 million people

Four Species:

P.vvivax

P. ovale

P. malarie

P. falciparum

36

Malaria can can cause death

- Loss of RBCs

- Anemia

- RBC clustering in small vessels causing clots in brain, kidneys, heart and liver

Quinine = treatment

37

Trypanosoma (acute)

T. brucei

Trasmitted by Tsetse fly

Parasite invades bloodstream and travels to CNS

Can effect CNS

38

T. brucei vs T. gambiense

Gambiense causes a chronic form charecterized by:

- bouts of fever

- headache

- changes in sleep patterns & behavior

- wasting

- if parasites enter brain, coma ensues

39

T. brucei vs. rhodesiense

rhodesiense causes a more acute form symptoms include:

- high fever

- rapid coma

- then death

40

Toxoplasma

Causes by relatively common blood infection

- parasites invade all cells except RBC

Transmission - cat poo, contaninated beef, pork,& lamb

cats pick up cysts from soil, birds or rodents

41

Naegleria

Primary ameobic meningoencephalitis

Can infect the CNS