Sociology Final

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definitions out of the book, and also slides, 11, 12, 14 as well chapter one basic fundamentals of sociology and founding fathers
updated 6 years ago by cielia
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1

marraige

is a legal union based on a mutual rights and obligations

2

family

is a group of people related by marriage, blood, or adoption

3

family of marriage

is established upon marriage. the marriage ceremony signifies that it is legal for a couple to have offspring and to give the children a family name

4

family of orientation

is the family a person is born into, the family of birth. it provides children with a name, an identity, and a heritage.

5

nuclear family

the smallest group of individuals that can legitimately be called a family and generally composed of a mother and father and children.

6

extended family

consists of tow or more adult generations of the same family whose members share economic resources and live in a common household

7

patrillineal

descent and and inheritance are passed from the father to his male descendants

8

matrillineal

descent and inheritance are passed from the mother to her female desecendants

9

patriarchal control

the oldest man living in a household as authority over the rest of the family members

10

matriarchal control

in which the oldest woman living in a household holds the authority, that controversy exists over whether any society has ever had a genuinely matriarchal family structure

11

democratic control

authority is split evenly between husband and wife

12

neolocal residence

in a nuclear family, a married couple establishes a new residence of its own, the residential arrangement is called

13

patrilocal residence

as in premodern china, calls for living with or near the husbands parents

14

matrilocal residence

residing with or near the wifes parents is expected under a

15

exogamy

refers to mate selection norms requiring individuals to marry someone outside their kind

16

endogamy

involves mate selection norms that require or encourage individuals to marry within their own kind

17

homogamy

refers to the tendency to marry someone similar to oneself based on personal preference

18

heterogamy

partners are dissimilar with respect to some important social characteristics

19

monogamy

the marriage of one man to one woman at a time

20

polygamy

which is the marriage of a male or female to multiple partners of the other sex, takes two forms: polygyny and polyandry

21

polygyny

is the marriage of one man to two or more women at the same time

22

polyandry

the marriage of one woman to two or more men at the same time-which is even a rarer form of marraige

23

marriage rate

the number of marriages per year for every 1,000 members of a population

24

divorce rate

is the number of divorces annually for every 1000 members of the population

25

divorce ratio

the number of divorced persons in the population divided by the number of persons who are married and living with their spouses

26

family resiliency

refers to the family's capacity to emerge from crises as a stronger and more resourceful

27

public policy

is a broad course of governmental action expressed in specific laws, programs, and initiatives; it is created and changed in democratic societies through the interplay of the government, lobbyist and interest groups

28

blended family

a family formed when at least one of the partners in the marriage has been married before and has one or more children from a previous marriage

29

single parent families

families headed by an unmarried adult

30

dual employed marriage

both husband and wife are in the labor market

31

cohabitation

living with someone in a marriage like arrangement without the legal obligations and responsibilities of formal marriage

32

civil unions

arrangements many gay marriage supporters see as "separate but equal" are legal arrangements between same sex couples providing them many of the rights enjoyed by married couples

33

homosexual families

same sex partners living together with children- are also increasing in number although the number is still small

34

sandwich generation

is the term applied to adults caught between caring for their parents and caring for the family they have formed after leaving home

35

open classroom

is a non-bureaucratic approach to education based on democratic relationships, flexibility, and non competitiveness

36

cooperative learning

takes place in a non-bureaucratic classroom structure in which students study in groups, with teachers acting as guides rather than as the controlling agents

37

integrative curriculum

another extension of the open classroom is an approach to education based on student-teacher collaboration

38

school choice

alternatives predicated on the free enterprise model, thereby creating competition for the public school system

39

vouchers

proponents of ----- contend that the government should make available families with school age children a sum of money that they can use in private or parochial schools

40

charter schools

are publicly funded schools operated like private schools by public school teachers and administrators

41

magnet schools

are public schools that attempt to achieve excellence by specializing in a particular area

42

for profit schools

supported by government funds but run by private, profit seeking companies, are proposed as a superior alternative to the traditional public schools

43

tracking

test scores are also used for ---- placing students in curricula consistent with schools expectations for the students' eventual occupations

44

manifest functions

the functions of schools discussed to this point are recognized and intended

45

latent functions

the educational institutions has other functions as well that are unrecognized and unintended

46

meritocracy

social status is based on ability and achievement rather than social class or parental status

47

competition

a social process that occurs when rewards are given to the people on the basis of how their performances compare with the performances of others doing the same task or participating in the same event

48

status groups

are made up of individuals who share a sense of status equality based on their participation in a common culture, with similar manners, hobbies, opinions, and values.

49

credentialism

the idea that credentials (educational degrees) are unnecessarily required for many jobs

50

educational equality

addresses "effects" of schooling. ----- ------ exists when schooling produces the same results (achievement and attitudes) for lower class and minority children as it does for other children

51

cognitive ability

the technical term for intelligence today, ---- ---- the capacity for thinking abstractly

52

cultural bias

an unfair measure of cognitive abilities for people in certain social categories

53

multiculturalism to schools

an approach to education in which the curriculum accents the view points, experiences, and contributions of minorities- including women as well as ethnic and racial minorities

54

hidden curriculum

transmit to children a variety of nonacademic values, norms, beliefs, and attitudes

55

self fulling prophecy

when an expectation leads to behavior that causes the the expectation to become a reality

56

religion

is a unified system of beliefs and practices relating to sacred things

57

sacred

entities that are set apart and given a special meaning that transcends immediate human existence

58

profane

the non-sacred aspects of life

59

spirit of capitalism

because capitalism involved the reinvestment of capital, investment for the future was more important than immediate consumption

60

protestant ethic

cluster of values, and attitudes stressing hard work, thrift and discipline

61

symbolic interactionism

theoretical perspective that focuses on interaction among people based on mutually understood symbols

(glossary definition)

62

ecclesia

a state of religion either headed by religious leaders or heavily influenced by a religious elite

63

demonination

is one of several religious organizations that most members of a society accept as legitimate

64

sect

is a religious organization formed when members of an existing religious organization break away in an attempt to reform the "parent" group

65

religiosity

the ways in which people express their religious interests and convictions

66

secularization

is a profane process through which the sacred loses influence over society

67

civil religion

is a public religion that expresses a strong tie between a deity and culture; it is broad enough to encompass almost the entire nation

68

invisible religion

a private religion that is substituted for formal religious organizations, practices and beliefs

69

fundamentalism

rejects secularization and adheres closely to traditional beliefs, rituals, and doctrines