Urinary System - Lecture

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1

_____ stimulates the peritubular capillaries to excrete K+ into the distal convoluted tubules / collecting ducts primarily in response to increased Na+ reabsorption

Aldosterone

2

The enzyme(s) that stimulates widespread vasoconstriction, stimulates a sense of thirst, and reduces water loss in the kidneys is/are…

Renin

3

The most plentiful solute in normal urine is:

Urea

4

The second-most plentiful solute in normal urine is:

Sodium

Na+

5

What are the solutes found in urine, in order from most plentiful to least plentiful?

1. Urea

2. Sodium (Na+)

3. Potassium (K+)

4. Phosphate (PO4 3-)

5. Sulphate (SO4 2-)

6. Creatine

7. Uric Acid

6

The process where “selected” substances are “transported” by various methods from the renal tubules to the peritubular capillaries is called:

Tubular reabsorption

7

Which ion is the most significant solute in determining total body water and its distribution?

Sodium (Na+)

8

Another name for urination is:

Micturition

9

The functional unit of the kidney is the:

Nephron

10

How many nephrons are present per kidney?

1.2 million/kidney

11

The triangular-shaped striated structures in the kidney are the:

Renal Pyramids

12

The dense fibrous connective tissue covering the kidney is the:

Renal Capsule

13

At the apex of the triangular striated structures in the kidney, the structure containing ducts that drain urine is the:

Renal Papilla

14

The structure where filtrate is removed from the blood by the blood’s hydrostatic pressure is the:

Renal corpuscle

15

What are the general functions of the urinary system?

1. Remove various ions/salts and nitrogenous "wastes" from blood plasma

2. Help maintain H2O balance throughout cells and tissues

3. Help maintain electrolyte/ion and pH balance

4. Aid in erythropoiesis

5. Help maintain blood pressure

6. Produce and eliminate urine

16

Region of the kidneys that contains the pyramids and columns

Renal medulla

17

Medial hollow chamber containing renal pelvis

Renal sinus

18

Medial opening of renal sinus

Hilum

19

Funnel-shaped urine collection reservoir containing calyces and leading to ureters

Renal Pelvis

20

Causes, and treatment of Renal Calculi

Causes: Hypercalcemia, dehydration, pH imbalance, frequent UTI, enlarged prostate gland causing urine infection

Treatment: Sometimes stone dissolving drugs, but often surgery. Also lithotripsy

21

Smooth muscle within urinary bladder wall

Detrusor muscle

22

Micturition stimulus occurs at approximately ___ - ____ ml

100-200 mL

23

Maximum capacity of urinary bladder is approx ___ - ___ (____) mL

400-600 (1200) mL

24

A common site of urinary bladder infection

Trigone

25

A sperical network of blood capillaries that recieve blood from afferent arterioles at higher pressure

Glomerulus

26

Recieves "filtrate" from glomerulus

Glomerular capsule

27

List the order of Renal Tubules

1. Proximal convoluted tubule

2. Nephron loop

3. Distal convoluted tubule

4. Collecting ducts

5. Peritubular capillaries

28

What are the three phases of urine formation by nephrons in the kidneys?

1. Glomerular filtration (blood to urine or glomerulus to glomerular capsule)

2. Tubular reabsorption (urine to blood or renal rubules to peritubular capillaries)

3. Tubular secretion (blood to urine or peritubular capillaries to renal tubules)

29

How many liters (___ gal) of filtrate are produced per day?

180 liters (45 gal)