CEEP 262

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Ch. 5-6
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1

Growth Patterns

  • slimmer
  • grow 3 inches/ gain 4 1/2 pounds
  • center of gravity moves down
2

Nutrition

need less calories per day than infants

  • overfeeding is a problem

-obesity is growing epidemic

-low SEC is at risk for obesity

3

Allergies

3-8% of kids have food allergies

  • milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, wheat, shellfish
4

Just right tendency

pathological in adults/normal in kids under 6

prominent in foods b/c of forced consumption/more senses involved/ seen more often

75% of 3 year olds had this

5

Body Changes

too much sugar, not enough fiber= tooth decay

  • decay can lead to speech issues in future

improve motor skills

  • pump legs, ladders, catch,kick
6

Environmental Hazards

pollutants: harm kids more than adults because their bodies are still growing and maturing

7

Avoidable injury

  • accidents are leading cause of death worldwide for ppl. under 40
  • 2-6 year olds at greater risk than older children
8

Prevention

  1. Primary (to large group before accident has taken place, to prevent unwanted event)
  2. Secondary (in the moment, to avert harm in high-risk situations like stopping car before hitting person)
  3. tertiary (not actual prevention, keeps things from getting worse, like medical treatment)
9

Brain Development

  • by age 2 kids brain will weigh 75% of what it will in adulthood
  • sprouting and pruning of dendrites
  • by age 6, kids brains will weigh 90% what it will in adulthood
10

Maturing Cortex

2-6 Years, neurological increases are especially notable in cortex (planning, thinking, social awareness, language)

maturation of prefrontal cortex lets kids focus and curb impulses

the immaturity of the brain is the reason why parents need to help prevent injuries

11

Maturing Cortex 2-6

  • sleep better
  • emotions are nuanced and responsive
  • temper tantrums decrease
  • faster thinking
12

Melin

fatty coating on axons that speed up signals between neurons

helps with faster thinking

13

corpus colossus

part of brain that grows during childhood

band of nerve fibers that connect the L and R brain

facilitates communication between the 2 brain hemishperes

14

Hypothalamus

brain area that responds from the amygdala and the hippocampus to produce hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body

15

Prolonged stress

leads to emotional and cognitive impairment

16

Piaget: preoperational thought

reasoning process

kids verbal ability permits symbolic thinking <-- words and symbols

language frees the child from limits of sensorimotor experience

17

Obstacles to logic

  1. Centration: kid focuses on 1 idea, excludes all others
  2. egocentrism: think about the world from their own personal perspective
  3. Focus on appearance: kid ignores all attributes that are not apparent
  4. static reasoning: kid thinks that nothing changes. whatever is now has always been and always will be
  5. irreversibility: kid thinks that nothing can be done, a thing cant be restored to the way it was before it changed
18

Conservation and logic

principles that the amount of a substance remains the same when it appears different

Ex- liquid 2 equal cups, tall one have more?

19

Vygostky: social learning

cognitive development is embedded in social context

20

Apprentice in thinking

Vygotsky's term for someone whose cognition is stimulated and directed by older and skilled people

21

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

vygostky's terms for skills that a person can exercise only with assistance not yet independently

22

scaffolding

temporary support that is tailored to a learner's needs and abilities and aimed at helping learners master the next task in given learning process

23

overimitation

  • tendency of children to copy and action that isn't relevant part of the behavior to be learned
  • common among 2-6 year olds when they imitate adult actions that are irrelevant and inefficient
24

Theory-theory

  • kids attempt to explain everything they see and hear
  • kids development theories about intentions before they employ their impressive ability to imitate
25

Questions-questions

  • most questions about human behavior (especially behavior toward child from parent)
  • kids want to develop theory to explain things
26

theory of mind

  • persons theory of what other people might be thinking
  • emergent ability
  • slow to develop but typically in most kids at 4
  • can be seen in young kids when trying to escape punishment by lying
27

Brain and Context

kids ability to develop theories, correlates with maturity of the prefrontal cortex

advances in executive processing

  • context and experience are relevant
  • context and culture matter
28

Language in early childhood

pivotal to every kind of cognition in early childhood

early childhood is the best time to master, grammar, pronunciation, and vocab

avg. kid knows 500 words at 2 and 10,000 at 6

29

fast mapping

speedy and sometimes not a precise way in which kids learn new words by tentivly them in mental categories according to their perceived meaning

30

logical extension

  • like fast mapping
  • use words to describe other objects in the same category (ex-dog/baby cow)
31

Strategies and experiences

  1. code focused teaching
  2. book reading
  3. parent ed
  4. language enhancement
  5. preschool programs
32

Basic grammar

  • structure
  • technique
  • rules
  • word order
  • repetition
33

overregularzation

application of rules of grammar even when exceptions

34

language shift

become more fluent in school language than home language

35

Balance bilingual

  • being fluent in 2 languages, not favoring 1 over the other
  • occurs if adults talk frequently, listen carefully, value both languages
36

Early childhood education

  • quality matters
  • if home educational environment is poor, a good preschool program aids health, cognition, and social skill
  • if family provides extensive learning opportunities and encouragement the quality of a preschool is less crucial
37

child centered programs

  • stress kids natural inclination to learn through play rather than by following adult directions
  • encourage self-paced exploration and artistic expression
  • show influence of Vygosky who thought that kids learn through play with others
38

Montessori schools

  • type of child centered program
  • emphasize individual pride and accomplishment
  • focus on literacy
39

Reggio Emilia

  • type of child centered program
  • encourages kids creativity
  • originated in Reggio Emilia Italy
40

Teacher Directed Programs

  • stress academic subjects
  • teacher teaches class
  • help kids with letters, #'s, shapes, colors, sitting still, listening quietly
  • clear distinction between work and play
  • less expensive
  • kid: Adult ratio is higher
41

intervention programs: head start

  • most widespread early-childhood educational programs
  • began in 1965
  • funded by federal gov.
  • early gains tended to fade
42

emotional regulation

  • ability to regulate when and how emotions are expressed
  • due to connections between limbic system and pre frontal cortex
43

initiative vs. guilt

  • Erikson's 3rd psychosocial crisis
  • kids undertake new skills and activities and feel guilt when they don't succeed at them
44

Guilt

self-blame that people experience when they do something wrong

45

Shame

peoples feelings that others blame them, disapprove of them, or are disappointed in them

46

self- esteem

persons evaluation of their own worth, either in specifics (intelligence, beauty) or in general

47

self- concept

  • persons understanding of who they are
  • incorporating self-esteem, physical appearance, personality, various personal traits
  • Ex (gender, size)
48

protective optimism

preschoolers predict that they can solve impossible puzzles, remember long lists of words, and control their dreams

positivity helps them try new things

49

neurological advancements

growth of prefrontal cortex at 4 or 5

myelination

improved capacity for self control

50

intrinsic motivation

drive or reason to pursue goal

comes from inside a person (need to feel smart or competent)

51

extrinsic motivaton

drive or reason to pursue goal

comes from need to have achievements rewarded from outside (receiving material possessions or another persons esteem)

52

goals for emotional regulation

  • different in cultures
  1. overcome fear (US)
  2. modify anger (Puerto rico)
  3. temper pride (china)
  4. control selfishness (japan)
  5. overcome Impatience (native)
  6. modify disobedience (mexico)
53

seeking emotional balance

lack of emotional regulation may be an early sign of psychopathology

54

signs of psychopathology

  1. externalizing problems (expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts, lashing out at others)
  2. internalizing (turning emotional distress inward, as by feeling excessively guilty, ashamed or worthless
55

neurological and hormonal effects

girs: internalize

boys: externalize

56

Play

  • the lost productive and enjoyable activity that kids undertake
  • universal
57

peers

people of about the same age and social status

provide practice in emotional regulation, empathy, and social understanding

preferred play partners over parents

58

solitary play

play alone, unaware of others around them

59

on looker play

watches others play

60

parallel play

play with similar toys in similar ways but not together

61

associative play

kids interact, observe each other and share materials but its not mutual and reciprocal

62

cooperative play

kids play together creating and elaborating a joint activity or taking turns

63

rough and tumble play

mimics aggressive, wrestling, chasing, hitting

no intent to harm

"just pretending" <-- gestures and expressions

social understanding advances but more likelihood of injury

young boys

positively affects prefrontal cortex dev.

64

sociodramatic play

allows kids to act out various roles and themes in stories that they create

  • explore and rehearse social roles
  • test ability to explain
  • practice regulating their emotions
  • develop self-concept
65

parenting styles

4 dimensions

  1. express warmth
  2. strategies for discipline
  3. communication
  4. expectations for maturity
66

authoritarian

  • high standards
  • strict punishment
  • little communication

kids become conscientious, obedient and quiet, but aren't happy, rebel, leave home early

67

permissive parenting

  • high nurturance
  • high communication
  • little discipline
  • little guidance and control

unhappy lack of self-control, cant regulate emotion, live at home

68

neglectful/ uninvolved

  • indifferent toward their kids
  • unaware of what's going on in their lives
69

Authoritative

  • parents set limits
  • enforce rules
  • flexible
  • listen to their kids

successful, articulate, happy, generous

70

critics of braumed model

  • little economic or cultural diversity
  • authoritarians love their kids
  • focus on attitudes rather than daily interactions
  • permissive parents guide their kids with words not rules
  • kids contribute to their parent/child relationship
71

3 ways interactions influence outcomes of parenting styles

  1. kids temperament
  2. parent personality
  3. social context
72

significance of context

  • media can harmful
  • age 2: gender roles applied
  • age 4: gender roles with toys
73

gender and sex differences

5: higher awareness of gender and sex differences

8: belief that their biological sex is permanent

2-8: awareness of sex differences, preferences for same-sex playmates and stereotypical gender activities

74

psychoanalytical theory

  • phallic stage: Frued's 3rd stage of dev. (penis comes in focus of concern and pleasure)
  • Oedipus stage: unconscious desire of young boys to replace their fathers and win their mothers exclusive love
  • superego: judgmental part of personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents
  • electra complex: unconscious desire of girls to replace mothers and win fathers exclusive love
  • identification: attempt to defend one's self-concept
75

"gender appropriate"

rewarded more frequently than "gender-inappropriate" behavior

76

gender differences

product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment

learned through all roles, values, morals

77

social learning theory

kids notice ways men/women behave and internalize standards they choose

78

cognitive theory

offer alternative explanation for strong gender identity that become apparent at 5

79

Gender schema

  • kids concept of gender belief about sex differences
  • based on his/her observations and experiences
  • everyone is either male or female (think and behave accordingly)
80

evolutionary theory

sexual attraction is crucial for basic urge to reproduce

  • males and females try to look attractive to each other in sex gendered ways
  • young boys and girls practice becoming attractive to other sex
81

moral development

emotional and social maturation are foundations for morality

  • both nature and nurture always influence, but developmentalists disagree about which is more important to morality
82

pro social behavior

extending helpfulness and kindness without any obvious benefits to themselves 3-6 years old

83

empathy

understanding others concerns

84

antisocial behavior

deliberately hurting another person, including people who have done no harm; declines beginning at age 2

85

antipathy

feelings of dislike or hatred for another

86

instrumental aggression

hurtful behavior intended to get something that another has and to keep it

87

reactive aggression

impulsive retaliation for another persons intentional or accidental action, verbal/physical

88

relational aggression

nonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejection, aimed at harming the social connection between victim and others

89

bullying aggression

unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves

90

Physical punishment

  • some researchers believe that physical punishments is harmless; some don't
  • physical punishment higher than obedience temporarily
  • higher possibility of later aggression
  • physical punishment correlates with delayed theory of mind and heightened aggression
91

psychological control

disciplinary technique that involves threatening to withdraw love and support and that relies on a child's feelings of guilt and gratitude to the parents

92

time-out

disciplinary technique where kid is separated from other people and activities for specific time

93

induction

alternative to physical punishment and psychological control

94

technique

  • talk extensively and help kinds understand why their behavior is wrong
  • parents listen as kids articulate their emotions and encourage kids to explore alternative behavior
  • conversation helps kids internalize standards but induction takes time and patience
95

child maltreatment

intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment of anyone under 18

96

child abuse

deliberate action that is harmful to a kids physical, emotional or sexual well-being

measurable

97

child neglect

failure to meet a child's basic physical, educational or emotional needs

hard to prove

98

reported maltreatment

harm/endangerment about which someone has notified authorities

99

substantiated maltreatment

harm/endangerment that has been reported, investigated and verified

100

consequences of maltreatment

  • isolated, unfriendly, hostile children
101

3 levels of prevention

  1. primary: focus on macro system and exo-system
  2. secondary: focus on warning signs and intervention
  3. tertiary: focus on everything that limits harm after maltreatment has already occurred