pharm exam

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1

Physiology of HTN
List four factors that affect blood pressure maintenance.

blood volume
cardiac output
arterial distensibiltiy
peripheral vascular resistance

2

Physiology of HTN

Name of the nerve endings in the large vessels of the heart and brain which are sensitive to changes in pressure and help control BP

baroreceptors

3

Physiology of HTN

What is the kidney enzyme released when BP is low?

Renin

4

Physiology of HTN
Name the active vasoconstrictor in the renin angiotensin system of BP control.

angiotensin II

5

Physiology of HTN
Idenify two consequences of untreated hypertension.

CVA
stroke
heart failure
CHF
cerebral thrombosis

6

Antihypertensive Agents
Which antihypertensive agents works on the blood vessels to relax the smooth muscles and cause vasodilation?

direct acting vasodilators

7

Antihypertensive Agents
Which category of antihypertensive agent blocks angiotensin II from attaching to receptor sites and blocking its hypertensive effects?

angiotensin II receptor antagonist

8

Antihypertensive Agents
Which category of antihypertensive agents decreases cardiac contractility and workload by decreasing depolarization? 

Calcium Channel Blocker

9

Antihypertensive Agents
If a drug is an alpha 2 agonist, what effect will it have on blood pressure?

decrease

10

Antihypertensive Agents
Two category of drugs that can be used as antianginal and antidysrhytmic agents as well as being used to control hypertension.

beta blocker
calcium channel blocker

11

Diuretic Agents
Which categories of diurectic agents work on the proximal renal tubules and have the strongest diuretic effect?

Osmotics Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

12

Diuretic Agents
Which category of diuretic agents work on the distal tubules and have the weakest diuretic effect?

potassium sparing

13

Diuretic Agents
What is the main physiological effect of diuretic agents in lowering blood pressure?

decreased or lower fluid volume 

14

Diuretic Agents
What is the most effective method for the nurse to measure fluid reduction with the use of diuretic agents?

daily weight
weigh daily

15

Diuretic Agents
What are three client factors that nurses should monitor when the client is taking diuretic agents?

blood pressure
potassium
weight
I & O
blood sugar

16

Cardiac Physiology
What is the main pacemaker of the heart?

SA Node

17

Cardiac Physiology
What is the electolyte responsible for returning heart to resting state after depolarization?

Potassium

18

Cardiac Physiology
What would happen to the contractility of the heart if Sodium and Calcium channels were blocked?

decrease contractility

19

 Cardiac Physiology
Cardiac output is equal to the amount of blood ejected from the left ventrical with each heart beat multiplied by what?

Heart rate

20

Cardiac Physiology
What would happen to the cardiac workload if the preload and the afterload were increased?

increased workload

21

Cardiac Disorders  
When there is inadequate blood flow to the heart tissue resulting in cardiac pain it is called________?

Angina

22

Cardiac Disorders  
An abnormal heart rhythm of any kind is called_________?

arrhythmia
dysrhythmia

23

Cardiac Disorders  
If the right side of the heart fails (CHF), what fluid effect results?

peripheral edema
peripheral congestion

24

Cardiac Disorders  
If the left side of the heart fails (CHF), what fluid effect results?

pulmonary edema
pulmonary congestion

25

Cardiac Disorders  

What is the main problem resulting from a cardiac dysrhythmia?

decreased cardiac output
reduced cardiac output

26

Cardiac Glycosides
Name two uses for Cardiac Glycosides?

congestive heart failure
atrial fibrillation

27

Cardiac Glycosides
What is the negative chronotropic action of a cardicac glycoside?

decreased heart rate
slow heart rate

28

Cardiac Glycosides

Why are cardiac glycoside blood levels monitored frequently?

long half life
prolonged half life
narrow therapeutic range

29

Cardiac Glycosides
What electrolyte imbalance increases the risk for glycoside toxicity?

hypokalemia
low potassium

30

Cardiac Glycosides
What are the signs of cardiac glycoside toxicity?

bradycardia
nausea
vomiting
visual changes
confusion
visual illusions

31

Antianginal Agents

What antianginal agent acts blocking the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine?

beta blocker

32

Antianginal Agents
Which antianginal agent acts by interfering with depolarization?

calcium channel blocker

33

Antianginal Agents
Which antianginal agent works by vasodilating coronary blood vessels?

nitrates

34

Antianginal Agents
Which antiangina agent can cause bronchospasm and impotence?

beta blocker

35

Antianginal Agents
What is one common side effect of antianginal agents?

hypotension
arrhythmia
dysrhythmia

36

Antidysrhythmics
Which two antianginal agents can also be used to treat dysrhythmias?

beta blockers
calcium channel blockers

37

Antidysrhythmics
Which two antidysrhytmic agents interfere with depolarization?

calcium channel blockers
sodium channel blockers

38

Antidysrhythmics
Which antidysrhytmic agent enhances the resting stage of the heart action?

Class III
prolong repolarization
those that prolong repolarization

39

Antidysrhythmics
List the common side effects of antidysrhythmic agents.

dysrhytmias
orthostatic hypotension
hypotension
bradycardia