Chapter 16

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John Wilkes Booth (VEERAMANI)

Actor who succeed with Shakespeare roles, but lived in his actor brother's shadow. He was a slavery fanatic who made many plans to kidnap Lincoln - none of which worked. On April 14, 1865, he shot Lincoln at Ford's Theater during a play, ran from the scene, and was caught some days later at a farm.

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Susan B. Anthony (VEERAMANI)

Teacher who spearheaded the women's rights movements; in 1952 she helped Elizabeth Cady Stanton in organizing the Woman's State Temperance Society; in 1869 she and Stanton formed the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA)

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Thaddeus Stevens (VEERAMANI)

Northern politician/lawyer who took on the defense of fugitive slaves pro bono. He helped found the Freedmen's Bureau and secured the passage of the 14th Amendment.

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Horace Greely (VEERAMANI)

This man was a newspaper editor who founded the New York Tribune and was one of the organizers of the Republican Party. He was very anti-slavery.

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Redeemers (VEERAMANI)

Political group made up of pre-war Democrats, Union Whigs, Confederate army veterans, and individuals interested in industrial development. They wanted to "redeem" the South by making reparations for the Civil War.

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Night Riders (VEERAMANI)

A violent group that operated from 1906 to 1908. Their mission was to rid the southwestern Kentucky and northwestern Tennessee region of the Duke tobacco monopoly.

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Proclamation of Amnesty & Reconstruction (VEERAMANI)

This was a proclamation made by Abraham Lincoln detailing how each state could re-enter the Union. The plan was that 10 percent of those who had voted in the election of 1860 would have to swear loyalty to the Union and accept emancipation for the slaves.

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Wade-Davis Bill (VEERAMANI)

This was a bill passed by staunch Republicans to set the groundwork for the Reconstruction policies. It was passed in an effort to keep Lincoln from being lenient with the Southern states.

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suffrage rights (ANDERSON)

Suffrage is the right to vote. It was one of the blacks' main aims during Reconstruction, and they gained the right to vote through the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments. During the passage of these amendments, women also took up the cry of suffrage, but remained disfranchised for the time being.

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Freedmen's Bureau (VEERAMANI)

A U.S. agency that was established during Reconstruction, which intended to help free slaves transition from slavery to freedom. Officially called the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands

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Black codes (VEERAMANI)

A set of laws instituted during Reconstruction that were designed to restrict the freedoms of former slaves and preserve white supremacy. They had their roots in the slave codes.

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Civil Rights Act of 1866 (VEERAMANI)

This is a law passed by the mostly Republican Congress that was intended to protect the rights of freed slaves and to guarantee equal rights to blacks.

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Radical Republicans (VEERAMANI)

These were members of the Republican Party (in the 1860s) committed to the emancipation of slaves and the equal treatment of African Americans.

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"Black Republicans" (VEERAMANI)

A group of African Americans who aligned with the Republican ideals and became the first black congressmen(14) and senators(2) in the U.S.

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13th Amendment (VEERAMANI)

Amendment to the Constitution that abolished slavery.

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14th Amendment (VEERAMANI)

Amendment to the Constitution that includes the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses. It answers the questions: who is a citizen of the United States? It also states that states must provide equal protection to all people who live there.

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15th Amendment (VEERAMANI)

Amendment to the Constitution that states that Congress cannot deny an individual the right to vote based on skin color (race).

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Military Reconstruction Act (VEERAMANI)

Act passed to rebuild the governments of the South by using the governments of the North as examples. It was also instituted to protect the civil rights of the free African Americans in the South by requiring the states in the South to include their rights in their constitutions.

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Presidential Impeachment Trial (VEERAMANI)

The Senate wanted to impeach Andrew Johnson, but had no grounds to do so until he committed a crime. He committed that crime in August of 1867, when he violated the Tenure of Office Act. He was put on trial to be impeached, but since the impeachment forces did not fulfill the 2/3 of the votes they needed, he was not impeached.

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Tenure of Office Act (VEERAMANI)

This was a law forbidding U.S. presidents to remove civil officers without the consent of the Senate.

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Carpetbagger (VEERAMANI)

Term for a A Northerner who traveled to the South after the Civil War for political or financial gain. They basically took advantage of the bad situation.

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Scalawag (VEERAMANI)

Derogatory term for white southerners who joined with former slaves and carpetbaggers in support of Republican policies during Reconstruction.

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KKK (VEERAMANI)

A secret, violent society that was founded in the South, during Reconstruction, and was intended to maintain white supremacy through terrorism.

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sharecropping (VEERAMANI)

A system of farming that came out of the plantation system during Reconstruction. It was basically the slavery system, where the slaves worked on the land but received food and shelter, but with this system, the slaves were no longer slaves. The landowners did not own the slaves.

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crop lien system (VEERAMANI)

A system of farming where poor farmers used credit before the planting season to borrow money that would be an estimated profit from the expected harvest. It was used during Reconstruction.

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"waving the bloody shirt" (VEERAMANI)

Political tactic. Occurs when politicians use the "blood of martyrs" to criticize their opponents.

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Liberal Party (BHATIA)

The anti Grant republican party which aimed to stop the corruption in the office by ending the spoils system and replacing the system with civil service. This party endorse Horace Greely as the presidential candidate.

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Pendleton Act/Civil Service Reform Act (VEERAMANI)

A civil service act that aimed to reform the "spoils system" by voiding many political appointments in favor of jobs only given to candidates who met certain standards of merit

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KKK Act (VEERAMANI)

(also called the Civil Rights Act of 1871) This was an act passed by Congress during Reconstruction, that was intended to protect African Americans from the Klu Klux Klan.

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Civil Rights Act of 1875 (VEERAMANI)

Law passed to ensure that all people - regardless of skin color - were entitled to "the full and equal enjoyment" of of inns, public transportation, theaters, and other places of entertainment.

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Slaughterhouse cases (BHATIA)

A series of cout cases that undermined reconstruction. These cases were on the subject of the federal government's ability to protect the rights of African Americans under the 14th and 15th amendments.

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Compromise of 1877 (VEERAMANI)

Compromise that settled the 1876 election and ended the Reconstruction period. The compromise was outlined so that the South would support Republican James A. Garfield for House Speaker, and protect African American rights'; in turn, the Republicans would provide financial aid to the South. Garfield did not win so the whole plan collapsed, and created the solid, racist, Democratic South.