Chapter 15

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George McClellan (PENG)

First Union general, appointed by Lincoln (even though McClellan thought the president was a dunce); superb administrator and organizer, but lacked decisiveness; for all his personal arrogance, he lacked any panache or confidence on the battlefield; later replaced by Lincoln

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Robert E. Lee (PENG)

The South’s most celebrated general; perfect foil for McClellan with his courteous and reserved demeanor but audacious and aggressive military persona

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Ulysses S. Grant (PENG)

General who emerged as the key northern commander during the Civil War; philosophy supported a war of attrition – kill the most of the enemy’s soldiers – but it was effective because of the North’s strength (way more soldiers than the South)

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Dorothea Dix (PENG)

Volunteer for the US Sanitary Commission who later became a paid military nurse and was named superintendent of female nurses in 1861; also well known for her efforts to reform insane asylums

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Clara Barton (PENG)

Nurse who worked in battlefield units (as opposed to the more common place for female nurses: hospitals behind the battle lines) and who later founded the American Red Cross

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William Tecumseh Sherman (PENG)

Grant’s appointed heir to the Union General post as well as his appointed commander of the western armies; plunged southeast towards Atlanta, invaded Georgia, felled Atlanta, “March to the Sea,” and coincided with both Lincoln’s reelection and the end of the war with an ultimate Union victory

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Fort Sumter (PENG)

Site of first Southern attack on the Union; perched on a tiny island at the entrance to Charleston harbor; pre-attack, it was hated symbol of the nation that Southerners had abandoned and to the North, it was a beacon affirming federal sovereignty in the seceded states

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Battle of Bull Run (PENG)

Light casualties for the war’s standards; first established battle post-fall of Fort Sumner (long time coming); learning process for both the North and South – in the North, Lincoln learned that a Union victory would neither be quick nor easy and provided a sobering effect; for the South, who won, their already astronomical confidence was boosted, faith in the Confederacy was strengthened, and Southern pride grew

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Union blockade/Anaconda Plan (PENG)

Naval blockade of the Confederacy put in place by President Lincoln to deny the South the advantages offered by the cotton industry (which singlehandedly supported the South); prompted Davis to voluntarily cease exportation of cotton in an attempt to destroy the Northern mill industries and earn European alliances – however, it failed miserably, leaving the South crippled but not really doing any harm to the North or Europe (namely, Britain and France)

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King Cotton diplomacy (PENG)

Theory that cotton-starved European nations would have no choice but to break the Union blockade and recognize the Confederacy; despite a Britain “cotton famine” (high unemployment, etc.), the South neglected to gain any European alliances because 1) allying with a potential loser wasn’t very attempting – especially in the face of Union victories, 2) Lincoln skewed support of the Confederacy as support of slavery (which had been outlawed in France and Britain), and 3) Lincoln also preached a need for European neutrality (this was a civil war)

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Confiscation Act (PENG)

Allowed the seizure of any slave employed directly by the Confederate military; Congress (Union) resolution against both slavery and the South

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contraband of war (PENG)

Confiscated property; Congress forbade returning fugitive slaves to their masters in the South – kind of like POWs, except that they gained freedom in the North as a result of being “captured”

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Emancipation Proclamation (PENG)

Promised to free all slaves in the seceding states on Jan. 1, 1863; Lincoln’s way of preserving the Union by weakening the Confederacy and destroying an essential component of the South’s infrastructure; more a means to a Union-preserving ends than a statement about the evils of slavery; earned plenty of enemies, the North included (and especially in the Upper South)

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National Banking Act (PENG)

February 1863, Congress established a system of national banks that by the 1870s had largely replaced the antebellum system of decentralized state banks; supplemented the makeover of the North’s economy that was an essential advantage for their victory

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Homestead Act (PENG)

May 1862, offered 160 acres of public land to settlers who would live and labor on it; part of the Union’s attempt to integrate the West more thoroughly into the Union; bolstered Western loyalty and resulted in more than 1 million new farms

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Pacific Railway Act (PENG)

July 1862, provided massive federal assistance for building a transcontinental railroad that ran from Omaha to San Francisco

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Land Grant College Act/Morrill Act (PENG)

Set aside public land to support universities that emphasized “agricultural and mechanical arts;” part of Union initiatives to establish long term agricultural and industrial mainstays

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U.S. Sanitary Commision (PENG)

A civilian organization that bought and distributed clothing, food, and medicine and recruited doctors and nurses to the Union army during the Civil War; manned by many northern female volunteers

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Draft laws/riots (PENG)

Law: required that all men between the ages of 20-45 enter a lottery to draft soldiers; poor men were appalled by the fact that richer northerners who support a replacement or pay their way out of it
Riots: class division, linked to emancipation – Democrat, anti-draft, and anti-black rivals all protested

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Siege of Vicksburg (PENG)

Vicksburg, Mississippi stood between Union forces and complete control of the river (which, if taken, would divide the Confederacy across the east and west); General Grant laid siege to the city and starved out the enemy in 6 weeks, ending in a forced surrender; along with the Battle of Gettysburg, it was paramount and led to an ultimate Union victory

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Battle of Gettysburg (PENG)

Union forces intercepted the Confederates at this small town, where Union soldiers held high ground and could scope out their Confederate opponents; Gettysburg cost Lee more than one-third of his army – 28,000 casualties; along with the Siege of Vicksburg, it was paramount and led to an ultimate Union victory

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Gettysburg Address (ANDERSON)

This is one of the best-known speeches in American history. In it, Lincoln combined America's founding ideal of equality for all with the Union's bid to re-unite all the states into a nation that would have truly equal opportunity for all. Lincoln used America's core values to justify the Union's side of the Civil War.

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Sherman's March/Burning of Atlanta (PENG)

The General’s march from Atlanta (which he felled) to Savannah (on the Atlantic Coast), called the “March to the Sea” and was aimed at destroying the will of the southern people; this was because the Union soldiers destroyed all food resources, slaves, cotton crops and gins, sorghum, and homes along the way

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Lincoln's Second Inaugural Speech (ANDERSON)

In this address, Lincoln put forth his hope for speedy reconciliation with the South. He aimed to shorten the war and eliminate slavery; he was still deeply compassionate towards the South and wanted to welcome it back into the Union as quickly as possible.

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Copperheads (ANDERSON)

This was a group of Democrats that opposed the Republicans' war effort, instead advocating immediate peace with the Confederacy. The Republicans named this group of Democrats "copperheads" after the poisonous snake, but advocates of peace made this a symbol of their movement.

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suspension of habeas corpus (ANDERSON)

Lincoln did this in September of 1862 in order to cut out opposition to the war. He imprisoned anyone who combated the draft or war effort and denied them the right to oppose their imprisonment (right of habeas corpus). In all, he put 14,000 individuals in jail, most of whom were not Democratic dissidents but Confederates or blockade runners attempting to subvert the Union.

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Appomattox Court House (ANDERSON)

This was the battle in which Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant's Union Army. It meant victory in the Virginian front of the war and was one of the last battles fought in the war.