How can bones be classified by shape?
Long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones and seasmoid bones
Where does hematopoiesis occur?
it occurs in the red bone marrow
What is calcitonin?
Calcitonin is produced by the thyroid glans and decreases serum calcium concentration if it is increased above its normal level
What is the function of vitamin D?
promote the absorption of calcium and phosphorous from the small intestine and also enhance PTH activity
What is the purpose of growth hormone?
secreted by the ant. lobe of the pituitary gland, and is responsible for increasing bone length and determining the amount of bone matrix produced before puberty
What are the three different kind of joints?
synarthrodial, amphiarthrodial, diarthrodial (synovial)
Which instrument is used to assess joint ROM?
What is crepitus?
a grating sound
What is a common MS abnormality of a patient with abdominal obesity?
What are the major enzymes affected in skeletal muscle disease or injuries?
creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, aldolase, lactic dehydrogenase
Main risk factors for Osteoporosis?
Female, white, menopausal, thin, lean, immobilization
Main risk factors for Osteomalacia?
Older adults, vitamin D deficiency, in- sufficient exposure to sunlight
Main risk factor for Osteomyelitis?
sibly a result of latent viral infec- tion
What is the purpose of biophosphates?
prevents bone loss and increases bone density
What is Paget's disease?
chronic metabolic disorder in which bone is excessively broken down and re-formed. The result is structurally disorganized causing bones to be weak with increased risk for bowing of long bones and fractures
What is the first line treatment choice for Paget's disease when alkaline phosphatase levels are at least twice the normal serum level?
What are the key features of acute osteomyelitis?
temp >101, swelling around the affected area, Erythema and tenderness of the affected area, bone pain that is constant, localized, and pulsating, intensifies with movement
what are the key features of chronic osteomyelitis?
Ulceration of the skin, sinus tract infection, localized pain, drainage from the affected area
What is the major treatment for osteomalacia?
Vit. D in an active form such as ergocalciferol
What are the key features of Paget's disease?
Bone and joint pain, low back and sciatic nerve pain, loss of normal spinal curvature, enlarged thick skull, flushed warm skin, apathy, lethargy, fatigue, gout, urinary or renal stones, heart failure from fluid overload
What is fascia?
fascia is an inelastic tissue that surrounds groups of muscles, blood vessels, and nerves in the body.
What is acute compartment syndrome?
serious condition in which increased pressure within one or more compartments reduces circulation to the area. ex: lower leg and forearm
What is myoglobinuric renal failure?
from muscle breakdown is a potentially fatal complication of compartment syndrome. Injured muscle tissues release myoglobin into the circulation where it can clog the renal tubules and cause acute renal failure
What is fat embolism syndrome?
fat globules are released from yellow bone marrow into the bloodstream within 12-48 hours after an injury or other illness.
what are the abnormal lab findings associated with FES?
inc. ESR, dec Ca, dec RBC and platlets, increased serum lipase
what are the early signs of ACS?
Pain, pressure, paralysis, paresthesia, pallor, pulselessness
how do you treat PLP?
recognize pain as real and should be managed promptly and efficiently. Do not tell the patient the limb cannot be hurt because it is missing. Handle the residual limb carefully to prevent increased pain
what medications do you used to treat PLP?
IV infusions of calcitonin, propranolol, carbamazepine, gabapentin, baclofen
What is the first priority of an emergency extremity fracture?
airway, breathing, circulation
What is the biggest risk factor for hip fractures?