Foundations of Library and Information Science

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What were the major technological changes that occurred in libraries between the years 1900-2010?

1. Developments in microphotography (1900-1960)
2. First applications of computers in libraries (1960s)
3. Use of online information in reference services (1970s)
4. Growth of CD-ROMs and integrated library systems (1980s)
5. Growth of Internet and World Wide Web (1990s)
6. Expansion of online information technologies such as: Digital libraries, Web portal, Web 2.0, Social networking (2000s)

- pg 226


How many principles are there for building a digital collection?

Nine - pg 240


What are the some of the nine principles for building a digital collection?

Created according to explicit collection development policy, Should be described so that a user can discover characteristics of the collection, Actively managing resources during their entire life cycle, Being broadly available and avoiding unnecessary impediments, Respect for intellectual property rights, Supplies usage data and other data that allow standardized measure of usefulness to be recorded, Interoperablity, Integration into the user's own workflow, or Being sustainable over time. - pg 240


What are some of Web 2.0's potential contributions to libraries?

1. Providing training and education in information literacy to ensure safe and effective use of these types of sites
2. Employing IM Twitter, and other applications for reference and current awareness services for patrons
3. Creating affinity group wikis on a variety of topics such as e-government or book clubs
4. An an internal means of communication for staff, librarians, and administrators. - pg 247


When was Microfilm technology invented?

Microphotography, which facilitated microfilm, was developed in the 20th century – Pg 226


What was the first significant application of computer technologies in libraries?

MARC, it became the standard for creating bibliographic records – Pg 227


What enabled bibliographic data to be entered, stored, and disseminated electronically on computer tapes?

Machine Readable Cataloging (MARC) – Pg 227


When did Online interactive capabilities emerge?

In the 1970s - Pg 228


What was the original name of the Online Computing Library Center (OCLC)?

Ohio Contemporary Learning Center -- The name was changed in 1981 due to increased membership and member participation in the online shared cataloging network. – Pg 227


What are some characteristics of a Boolean search?

It was named after George Boole, It permitted searching using logical connectors such as “and,” “or,” and “not.”, It was developed in the 1970s


Which decade saw the development of the linked systems protocol (LSP) which allowed different automated systems to be linked together electronically giving online users access to myriad information organizations?

1980s – Pg 231


What is the library’s main competition as an information service?

Web search engines – pg 236


What are some characteristics of Digital Libraries?

Accessible over a network, Organize information, Archive information


What are some issues currently impacting physical libraries?

Remote access and forced redesign – Pg 248


True or False?: The ability to access information remotely and to cooperate with other libraries is one of one of the impacts technology has had on information services.

True – pg 248


What are some characteristics of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology?

RFID tags are easier to read than bar codes, RFID improves security and control


True or False?: Digital Reference Service (DRS) staff can connect people to information in their local collection only.

False – pg 251


True or False?: Digital preservation has switched the focus from protecting a work from deterioration to increasing access to it.

True – pg 258


What are some of the functions of digital preservation?

Maintaining digital materials so they can be used over time, Protecting materials against unauthorized alterations, Conserving storage media to avoid deterioration - pg 258


What are the five great challenges of the Digital Age?

1. Malleability
2. Selectivity
3. Exclusivity
4. Vulnerability
5. Superficiality
- pg 248


What are the eight components of Dugan's proposed "costs structure model" for assessing the overall fiscal financial burden of a new technology?

1. Investigation
2. Negotiation
3. Acquisition
4. Installation
5. Training
6. Maintenance
7. Evaluation
8. Upgrade, Migrate, Replace or Abandon


What are some key concerns behind mass digitization projects?

How should important aspects of copyrights be handled?
Who will assume long-term ownership of books and journals and other media?
What business models are needed in the era of mass digitization?
What should be done about information illiteracy?

- pg 255