Personality Key Terms May

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1

existentialism

philosophy that studies the essence of human nature; emphasis is on freedom, individuality and phenomenological experience

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Dasein

study of the individual as a being in the world; emphasis is on an individual's existence at a certain time under certain circumstances. the conditions a person finds themselves in can never be separated from the person

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becoming

contention that through their active involvement with their life's circumstances, authentic people are constantly changing

4

Umwelt

physical, objective world; the world that is studied by physical and biological sciences

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Mitwelt

world of human interactions

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Eigenwelt

the intrapersonal world; individual's self-awareness

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alienation

separation from nature, other people, or oneself that results in feelings of loneliness, emptiness, or despair

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freedom

the potential to set future-oriented goals and then to act in accordance with them; exists only as a potential and must be attained over time by increasing one's self-awareness

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responsibility

because we are free to choose our own existence, we are also entirely responsible for that existence

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ontology

study of being; directed at understanding the essence of humans in general and of individuals in particular

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phenomenology

study of conscious experience as it exists for the person without any attempts to reduce, divide or compartmentalize in any way

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authenticity

if people live their lives in accordance with values that are freely chosen, they are living authentic lives

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death

because humans are mortal and because death is the ultimate state of nonbeing, awareness of one's inevitable death causes anxiety; this anxiety cannot be avoided; authenticity and anxiety are inseparable

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thrownness

those facts that characterize a person's life over which he or she has no control

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human dilemma

capacity of humans to see themselves as objects to which things happen and as subjects who act on their own experiences and thereby give them meaning

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object-subject dichotomy

the fact that as humans, we are both the objects of experience and the interpreters, transformers, and originators of experience

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self-relatedness

to be aware of one's existence as a being in the world who both has experiences and transforms them. to be conscious that one is both the object and the subject of experience

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intentionality

the fact that mental events are directed toward objects outside of themselves

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will

commitment to action

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wish

cognitive exploration of possible courses of action before actually committing oneself to a particular course

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anxiety

to be human is to experience anxiety; the experience we have when our existence as an individual is threatened; to grow, one's values must be threatened - anxiety is unavoidable

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normal anxiety

anxiety that results from the revisions of one's value system and from the awareness of one's inevitable death

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neurotic anxiety

anxiety that results from not being able to deal adequately with normal anxiety; unhealthy; results from attempts to escape normal anxiety; experienced when consciousness is restricted, old values are clung to at all costs, or when one attempts to escape normal anxiety by accepting dogma

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guilt

feeling we have when we realize we are not living up to our full potential

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normal guilt

feeling experienced when one recognizes the difference between what one is and what one could be

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neurotic guilt

if normal guilt is not recognized and dealt with constructively, it can overwhelm a person, causing him or her to block out the very experiences conducive to personal growth

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values

those categories of experience that are deemed most important to the person

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Oedipus Conflict

a struggle between dependence and independence

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commitment

one must exist in the world and therefore act on it

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love

true or authentic love involves a harmonious blending of sex, eros, philia, and agape

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sex

biological aspect of love; to satisfy this aspect requires only sexual activity with a partner

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eros

desire to form a union with or to feel at one with one's partner in love

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daimonic

potential for evil or harm that is part of human nature; occurs when any natural function that in moderation is positive, dominates the individual

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philia

experience of friendship or companionship with one's loved one even when sex and eros are not involved

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agape

unselfish giving of one's self to another; a giving of one's self without any concern of what one will get in return

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psychotherapy

therapist must attempt to understand things as the client does and try to understand how the client is using a problem to maintain his or her identity as a person

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unconscious

cognitive experiences that are denied awareness because a person is not living an authentic life

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encounter

the meeting of two selves, or seeing things as the other sees them; an honest sharing of one's self with another person

39

new science of humans

would take into consideration the human use of symbols, the human sense of time, the importance of values, the uniqueness of each human and the importance of freedom