Oxygenation

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1

As the myocardium stretches, the strength of the contraction increases.

Frank-Starling law

2

What is the amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle each minute?

Cardiac output

3

What is S1 and S2?

Closure of heart valves

4

What is the amount of blood ejected from the ventricle with each contraction called?

Stroke volume

5

_________ is the end-diastolic volume.

Preload

6

_____________ is the resistance to the left ventricle injection.

Afterload

7

What reflects the electrical activity of the conduction system?

ECG

8

_____________ is a normal sequence on the electrocardiogram (ECG).

Normal sinus rhythm (NSR)

9

What wave in the conduction system indicates conduction through both atria?

P wave

10

What wave in the conduction system indicates the impulse travel time through the AV node (0.012-20 seconds)?

PR interval

11

What wave in the conduction system indicates the impulse traveled through the ventricles (0.06-0.12 seconds)?

QRS complex

12

What wave in the conduction system indicates the time needed for ventricular depolarization and repolarization (0.12-0.42 seconds)?

QT interval

13

What is the process of moving gases into and out of the lungs?

Ventilation

14

What is the effort required to expand and the contract the lungs?

Work of breathing

15

What is the active process stimulated by chemical receptors in the aorta?

Inspiration

16

What is the passive process dependent on the elastic recoil properties of the lungs?

Expiration

17

What is the ability of the lungs to distend or expand in response to increased intraalveolar pressure?

Compliance

18

What is the pressure difference between the mouth and the alveoli in relation to the rate of flow of inspired gas?

Airway resistance

19

What is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide during cellular metabolism?

Respiration

20

___________ is reduced hemoglobin.

Deoxyhemoglobin

21

What moves the respiratory gases from one area to another according to concentration gradients?

Diffusion

22

What is the amount of air exhaled after normal inspiration?

Tidal volume

23

a. Physiological
b. Developmental
c. Lifestyle
d. Environmental

Factors that effect oxygenation

24

a. Pregnancy (inspiratory capacity declines)
b. Obesity (reduced lung volumes)
c. Musculoskeletal abnormalities (structural configurations, trauma, muscular disease, CNS)
d. Trauma (flail chest, incisions)
e. Neuromuscular diseases (decrease the ability to expand and contract the chest wall)
f. CNS alterations (reduced inspiratory lung volumes)
g. Chronic diseases (chronic hypoxemia)

Conditions that affect chest wall movement and why

25

What defines a regular heart rhythm but a rate >100 beats/minute?

Tachycardia

26

What defines a regular heart rhythm with a rate <60 beats/minute?

Bradycardia

27

When the electrical impulse in the atria is chaotic and originates from multiple sites it is considered to be in _____________.

Atrial fibrillation

28

What heart condition is life threatening, having the electrical impulse originate in the ventricles; QRS complex is usually widened and bizarre?

Ventricular tachycardia

29

What is defined as uncoordinated electrical activity with no identified P, QRS, or T wave?

Ventricular fibrillation

30

What is characterized by decreased functioning of the left ventricle (fatigue, breathlessness, dizziness, and confusion)?

Left-sided heart failure

31

What is characterized by impaired functioning of ventricle (weight gain, distended neck veins, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, and dependent peripheral edema?

Right-sided heart failure

32

What results when the supply of blood to the myocardium from the coronary arteries is insufficient to meet the myocaridal oxygen demand?

Myocardial ischemia

33

What is caused by a transient imbalance between myocaridal oxygen supply and demand?

Angina pectoris

34

What results from a sudden decrease in coronary blood flow or an increase in myocaridal oxygen demand without adequate coronary profusion?

Myocardial infarction

35

What occurs when excess ventilation is required to eliminate the carbon dioxide produced (anxiety, infections, drugs, or an acid-based imbalance)?

Hyperventilation

36

What occurs when alveolar ventilation is inadequate to meet the body's oxygen demand?

Hypoventilation

37

What is inadequate tissue oxygenation at the cellular level (decreased hemoglobin levels, high altitudes, poisoning, pneumonia, shock, chest trauma)?

Hypoxia

38

What is a blue discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by the presence of desaturated hemoglobin in the capillaries?

Cyanosis

39

Who is at a cardiopulmonary risk of upper respiratory tract infections because of frequent exposure to second-hand smoke?

Infants and children

40

Who is at a cardiopulmonary risk from exposure to respiratory infections, second hand smoke, and smoking?

School-age children and adolescents

41

Who is at a cardiopulmonary risk from unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, stress, OTC medications, illegal substances, and smoking?

Young and middle-aged adults

42

Who is at a cardiopulmonary risk from aging changes and osteoporosis

Older adults

43

a. Smoking cessation
b. Weight reduction
c. Low-cholesterol and low-sodium diet
d. Management of hypertension
e. Moderate exercise

Lifestyle changes that decrease the risk of cardiopulmonary disease

44

a. Asbestos
b. Talcum powder
c. Dust
d. Airborne fibers

Occupational pollutants

45

Pain, dyspnea, fatigue, peripheral circulation, cardiac risk factors

Focus of the nursing history to meet oxygen needs for cardiac function

46

Cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, pain, environmental exposure, frequency of infections, risk factors, medication use, smoking use

Focus of the nursing history to meet oxygen needs for respiratory function

47

_________ pain does not occur with respiratory variations.

Cardiac

48

__________ chest pain is peripheral and radiates to the scapular regions.

Pleuritic

49

____________ pain often presents after exercise, trauma, or prolonged coughing episodes.

Musculoskeletal

50

Fatigue is a ___________ sensation (loss of endurance).

Subjective

51

______________ is a clinical sign of hypoxia that is usually associated with exercise or excitement associated with many medical and environmental factors.

Dyspnea

52

___________ is an abnormal condition in which the patient uses multiple pillows when lying down.

Orthopnea

53

___________ is a sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs, and is a protective reflex to clear the trachea, bronchi, and lungs of irritants and secretions.

Cough

54

What is a high-pitched musical sound caused by high-velocity movement of air through a narrowed airway?

Wheezing

55

What technique is used during physical examination to assess tissue oxygenation that reveals skin and mucous membrane color, general appearance, level of consciousness, adequacy of systemic circulation, breathing patters, and chest wall movement

Inspection

56

What technique used during physical examination to assess tissue oxygenation documents the type and amount of thoracic excursion, areas of tenderness, identifies tactile fremitus, thrills, heaves, and PMI (point of maximal impulse)?

Palpation

57

What technique used during physical examination to assess tissue oxygenation detects the presence of abnormal fluid or air in the lungs?

Percussion

58

What technique used during physical examination to assess tissue oxygenation identifies normal and abnormal heart and lung sounds?

Auscultation

59

What test is worn by a patient that produces a continuous ECG tracing over a period of time while the patient documents any experiences of rapid heart beat or dizziness that provides information of the heart's electrical activity during activities of daily living?

Holter monitor

60

What type of test monitors an ECG reading while a patient walks on a treadmill at a specified speed and time and is used to evaluate the cardiac response to physical stress?

Exercise stress test

61

A/an _________ test is an invasive measure of intracardiac information about difficult-to-treat dysrhythmias that assess adequacy of antidysrhythmic medication.

EPS