As the myocardium stretches, the strength of the contraction increases.
What is the amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle each minute?
What is S1 and S2?
Closure of heart valves
What is the amount of blood ejected from the ventricle with each contraction called?
_________ is the end-diastolic volume.
_____________ is the resistance to the left ventricle injection.
What reflects the electrical activity of the conduction system?
_____________ is a normal sequence on the electrocardiogram (ECG).
Normal sinus rhythm (NSR)
What wave in the conduction system indicates conduction through both atria?
What wave in the conduction system indicates the impulse travel time through the AV node (0.012-20 seconds)?
What wave in the conduction system indicates the impulse traveled through the ventricles (0.06-0.12 seconds)?
What wave in the conduction system indicates the time needed for ventricular depolarization and repolarization (0.12-0.42 seconds)?
What is the process of moving gases into and out of the lungs?
What is the effort required to expand and the contract the lungs?
Work of breathing
What is the active process stimulated by chemical receptors in the aorta?
What is the passive process dependent on the elastic recoil properties of the lungs?
What is the ability of the lungs to distend or expand in response to increased intraalveolar pressure?
What is the pressure difference between the mouth and the alveoli in relation to the rate of flow of inspired gas?
What is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide during cellular metabolism?
___________ is reduced hemoglobin.
What moves the respiratory gases from one area to another according to concentration gradients?
What is the amount of air exhaled after normal inspiration?
Factors that effect oxygenation
a. Pregnancy (inspiratory capacity declines)
b. Obesity (reduced lung volumes)
c. Musculoskeletal abnormalities (structural configurations, trauma, muscular disease, CNS)
d. Trauma (flail chest, incisions)
e. Neuromuscular diseases (decrease the ability to expand and contract the chest wall)
f. CNS alterations (reduced inspiratory lung volumes)
g. Chronic diseases (chronic hypoxemia)
Conditions that affect chest wall movement and why
What defines a regular heart rhythm but a rate >100 beats/minute?
What defines a regular heart rhythm with a rate <60 beats/minute?
When the electrical impulse in the atria is chaotic and originates from multiple sites it is considered to be in _____________.
What heart condition is life threatening, having the electrical impulse originate in the ventricles; QRS complex is usually widened and bizarre?
What is defined as uncoordinated electrical activity with no identified P, QRS, or T wave?
What is characterized by decreased functioning of the left ventricle (fatigue, breathlessness, dizziness, and confusion)?
Left-sided heart failure
What is characterized by impaired functioning of ventricle (weight gain, distended neck veins, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, and dependent peripheral edema?
Right-sided heart failure
What results when the supply of blood to the myocardium from the coronary arteries is insufficient to meet the myocaridal oxygen demand?
What is caused by a transient imbalance between myocaridal oxygen supply and demand?
What results from a sudden decrease in coronary blood flow or an increase in myocaridal oxygen demand without adequate coronary profusion?
What occurs when excess ventilation is required to eliminate the carbon dioxide produced (anxiety, infections, drugs, or an acid-based imbalance)?
What occurs when alveolar ventilation is inadequate to meet the body's oxygen demand?
What is inadequate tissue oxygenation at the cellular level (decreased hemoglobin levels, high altitudes, poisoning, pneumonia, shock, chest trauma)?
What is a blue discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by the presence of desaturated hemoglobin in the capillaries?
Who is at a cardiopulmonary risk of upper respiratory tract infections because of frequent exposure to second-hand smoke?
Infants and children
Who is at a cardiopulmonary risk from exposure to respiratory infections, second hand smoke, and smoking?
School-age children and adolescents
Who is at a cardiopulmonary risk from unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, stress, OTC medications, illegal substances, and smoking?
Young and middle-aged adults
Who is at a cardiopulmonary risk from aging changes and osteoporosis
a. Smoking cessation
b. Weight reduction
c. Low-cholesterol and low-sodium diet
d. Management of hypertension
e. Moderate exercise
Lifestyle changes that decrease the risk of cardiopulmonary disease
b. Talcum powder
d. Airborne fibers
Pain, dyspnea, fatigue, peripheral circulation, cardiac risk factors
Focus of the nursing history to meet oxygen needs for cardiac function
Cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, pain, environmental exposure, frequency of infections, risk factors, medication use, smoking use
Focus of the nursing history to meet oxygen needs for respiratory function
_________ pain does not occur with respiratory variations.
__________ chest pain is peripheral and radiates to the scapular regions.
____________ pain often presents after exercise, trauma, or prolonged coughing episodes.
Fatigue is a ___________ sensation (loss of endurance).
______________ is a clinical sign of hypoxia that is usually associated with exercise or excitement associated with many medical and environmental factors.
___________ is an abnormal condition in which the patient uses multiple pillows when lying down.
___________ is a sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs, and is a protective reflex to clear the trachea, bronchi, and lungs of irritants and secretions.
What is a high-pitched musical sound caused by high-velocity movement of air through a narrowed airway?
What technique is used during physical examination to assess tissue oxygenation that reveals skin and mucous membrane color, general appearance, level of consciousness, adequacy of systemic circulation, breathing patters, and chest wall movement
What technique used during physical examination to assess tissue oxygenation documents the type and amount of thoracic excursion, areas of tenderness, identifies tactile fremitus, thrills, heaves, and PMI (point of maximal impulse)?
What technique used during physical examination to assess tissue oxygenation detects the presence of abnormal fluid or air in the lungs?
What technique used during physical examination to assess tissue oxygenation identifies normal and abnormal heart and lung sounds?
What test is worn by a patient that produces a continuous ECG tracing over a period of time while the patient documents any experiences of rapid heart beat or dizziness that provides information of the heart's electrical activity during activities of daily living?
What type of test monitors an ECG reading while a patient walks on a treadmill at a specified speed and time and is used to evaluate the cardiac response to physical stress?
Exercise stress test
A/an _________ test is an invasive measure of intracardiac information about difficult-to-treat dysrhythmias that assess adequacy of antidysrhythmic medication.