Section 5 Reproduction
What is the length of the testis?
What is the width of the testis?
What is the volume of the testis
Which gene determines sex?
What what age do embryos look the same?
up to 8 weeks
what drives structural changes?
boys get a testosterone bath
Where do the testes develop?
near the kidneys
At what time do the testes descend?
7 months (28 weeks)
where do the testis drop?
through the inguinal canal into the scrotum
Name the 2 parts of the testis
Name the external genitalia
name the internal genitalia
Explain the layers of the scrotum from out to in
external spermatic fascia
internal spermatic fascia
tunica vaginalis X2
what does the external spermatic fascia cover?
the cremaster muscle
explain the significance of the tunica vaginalis
it is an double walled covering with a visceral and parietal layer
What type of gland is the testi?
endocrine - testosterone
exocrine - sperm
what is the outer coat of the testis
what does the tunica albuginea form?
extends into the testi to form the mediastinum
What is the mediastinum testis?
formed from the extension of the tunica albuginea the mediastinum testis radiates into the testi to form 200-300 lobules containing seminiferous tubules
what is the function of seminiferous tubules
explain the path of sperm after leaving the seminiferous tubules
efferent ducts - head epididymis
What arteries supply the testis?
testicular arteries off the aorta
what veins drain the testis?
Rt - IVC
Lt - Lt renal vein
Describe the shape of the epididymis
single long convoluted tube
How long is the epididymis tube?
Which part of the epididymis is the largest?
Where does the head lie
where does the body of the epididymis lie?
extends along the posterior aspect
Where is the tail of the epididymis
thinnest most inferior part
What is problematic of the inguinal canal?
tends to be weak
common place for hernia
What is the spermatic cord composed of?
What is the function of the cremaster muscle?
Seminal vesicles VS seminiferous tubules
seminiferous tubules - spermatogenous
Seminal vesicles -
What is the function of the vas deferens?
connect the tail of the epididymis to the prostate
How long is the vas deferens?
Explain the route of the vas deferens.
travels through the inguinal canal
travels over the top of the pubic bone
swings around to the back side of the bladder
dilates distally to form the ampulla of deferens
joins the seminal vesicles
into the superior section of the prostate
What does the epididymis consist of?
3 smooth muscles
what is the ampulla of deferens
dilation of the vas deferens just before it enters the prostate
What is the ejactlatory duct?
vas deferens joins the seminal vesicles
What is the function of the seminal vesicles?
secretes 60% of seminal fluid
What is the function of the prostate?
produces 30 % of seminal fluid
what is the shape of the prostate?
base and apex
What does the Prostate consist of?
various regions and zones
levator ani muscles
pelvic floor muscles
What is the prostate urethra?
part of the urethra that runs through the prostate
5% of seminal fluid
clear and thick lubricant;
flushing agent that washes out the urethra
What is the Cowper’s Gland?
another name for bulbourethral gland
60% seminal vesicles
5% bulbourethral gland
Appearance of the prostate
What are the regions of the prostate?
veramontanum - prostatic portion of the urethra where the seminal
Peripheral zone (PZ)
Central zone (CZ)
Transition zone (TZ)
fibromuscular zone (or stroma)
What is the penis consist of?
3 cylinder masses
2 corpus cavernosum
1 corpus spongiosum
Where does the urethra run through the penis?
within the posterior spongiosum
what bounds and divided the the three cylinder masses of the penis
buck's fascia - fibrous envelope
What type of blood engorges penis during erection
Explain the flow of penile arteries
- deep artery of the penis
- corpus cavernosum
- bulbourethral artery
- corpus spongiosum , glans penis
Explain venous flow of the penis
superficial and deep dorsal vein
pudendal venous plexus
internal pudendal vein
internal iliac vein
What do Reproduction organs begin from?
2 urogenital folds
What does the urogenital folds consist of?
What does the mesonephos develop into
- urogential sinus
What does the gonad develop into
- mesonephric duct
- paramesonephric duct
What does the paramesonephric duct develop into?
- fallopian tubes
What does the mesonephric duct develop into?
What is the wolfian duct
What is the mullerian duct
Which gender has mullerian and wolfian ducts?
What happens when there is an incomplete fusion of mullerian duct?
Where is the fundus?
upper rounded portion
Where is the cornua?
the attachment of the fallopian tubes into the fundus
Where is the corpus
Where is the cervix?
extends into the vagina
Where is the isthmus?
between corpus and cervix
What is a bicornuate uterus
What is didelphys uterus?
What is unicollis uterus?
What is subseptus uterus?
What region does the pelvis occupy?
- left iliac
- right iliac
How is the pelvis divided?
- true pelvis
- false pelvis
Where is the true pelvis?
diaphragm - linea terminalis
posterior/inferior cavity that extends backwards into the skeletal framework
Where is the false pelvis?
linea terminalis - iliac crest
What is the shape of the true pelvis?
What is the area called between the uterus and the bladder?
What is the area called between the uterus and the rectum?
Where is the uterus compared to the bladder?
Where is the uterus compared to the sigmoid colon?
the peritoneum lines which walls of the uterus?
anterior and posterior
the vagina lies where to the bladder?
the vagina lies where to the rectum?
How do the fallopian tubes lie to the uterus?
Where is the fallopian tubes to the peritoneum?
course with in the folds of the broad ligament
In what area are the ovaries located?
in the adnexa
Where is the adnexa?
peritoneal cavity space located posterior to the broad ligament
Ureters & internal iliac vessels lie ________ to ovaries.
External iliac vessels lie ________ to ovaries.
What is the size of the uterus?
8 cm x 5.5 cm x 3 cm
long x thick x wide
What is the length of the cervix?
2-3 cm long
How is the uterus in multiparous women compared to nulliparous woman?
What is uterine size in children
2.5 cm x 1 cm x 2 cm
long x thick x wide
What is the size of the ovaries during reproductive years?
3 cm x 5 cm x 2 cm
long x thick x wide
2.5-5 cm x .6-2.2 cm x 1.5-3 cm
What is the ovarian volume?
6 - 13 cc
What is the ovarian volume formula?
.523 x L x W x T (cm)
What is the size of the ovaries post menopausal?
2 x 1 x 2 cm
what muscle starts at the arcuate line and makes up the anterior lateral walls of the pelvis?
What muscle starts posterior and works anterior through the sciatic notch, makes up posterior wall lateral wall of the pelvis?
What muscle produces a hammock which supports the muscles in the true pelvis?
What are the two muscles that make up the levator ani in the female pelvis?
Which muscle makes up the medial and anterior floor of the female pelvis?
Which muscle makes up the lateral floor of the female pelvis?
Which muscle makes up the posterior floor of the female pelvis?
What is found within the folds of the broad ligament?
What is the broad ligament?
Explain how the broad ligament extends around the uterus.
extends from the uterine cornea to the lateral walls of the uterus.
What is the area posterior to the broad ligament called?
Which ligament gives the uterus its characteristic forward bend?
Which ligament extends from the upper cervix to lateral walls of the pelvis?
Which ligament extends from the posterior cervix to the sacrum?
What is the space called between the symphysis and bladder?
space of Retzius
What is in the space of Retzius?
Where is the vessicouterine pouch?
posterior to the bladder
What is another name for the vessicouterine pouch?
anterior cul de sac
Where is the trigone region of the bladder?
What is the muscle of the bladder?
Where is the pouch of douglas in the female pelvis?
between the rectum and the uterus
What is another name for the pouch of douglas?
posterior cul de sac
Which pouch is the most dependent?
pouch of douglas
What extends from the uterus to the external genitalia?
How long is the vagina?
What forms the fornices?
the cervix extending into the vagina
Name the fornices
What are the layers of the vaginal walls?
Explain the vaginal walls
usually collapsed with walls forming rugae
What is the shape of the uterus?
What is the endometrium?
mucus producing inside layer
divided into 2 layers
zona basal layer
What is the zona functionalis?
the most interior portion of the endometrium this layer is shed every month
What is the zona basal?
the second layer of the endometrium, this layer produces the zona functionalis
What is the myometrium?
middle muscle layer of the uterus
What type of muscle makes up the myometrium?
longitudinal and circular smooth muscle
What is parturition?
the action or process of giving birth to offspring
Which layer of the uterus causes contractions during parturition?
What is the uterine serosa?
thin connective tissue layer on the outside
What is anteversion?
What is anteflexion?
What is retroversion?
What is retroflexion?
bent back wards
Where does fertilization usually occur?
ampulla of the fallopian tubes
name the parts of the fallopian tubes
What is fimbriae?
finger like structures at the end of the fallopian tubes that surround the ovary
Where is the infundibulum of the fallopian tubes?
Where is the ampulla of the fallopian tubes?
Where is the isthmus of the fallopian tubes?
Where is the interstitial of the fallopian tubes?
How long are the fallopian tubes?
Explain how the ovum is moved through the fallopian tubes.
gentle pulsated motion
peristalsing muscle layers
What is the shape of the ovaries?
Are the ovaries covered by peritoneum?
how would fertilization occur?
What are the ovaries consist of?
Where are the ovaries to the broad ligament?
What is the ovarian cortex responsible for?
production of ova
Where are the ovarian follicles located?
in the cortex
epithelial - germinal layer
What are the ovaries held in place by?
What does the medulla of the ovaries consist of?
arteries, veins, nerves, lymphatics
What part of the pelvic colon is in the true pelvis?
is the rectum peritoneal?
Where does the rectum lie compared to the vagina?
explain the vasculature of the pelvis
what does the uterine artery branch into?
What surrounds the uterine arteries?
folds of the broad ligament
What do the straight arteries feed?
surface of the uteries
Once the uterine arteries enter the uterus what are the branches?
Where do the ovarian arteries arise?
What does the ovarian arteries join?
the ovarian branch of the uterine artery
within the female pelvis veins match arteries