Section 5 Reproduction

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Sonography
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1

What is the length of the testis?

3-5 cm

2

What is the width of the testis?

2-3 cm

3

What is the volume of the testis

25 ml

4

Which gene determines sex?

Y

5

What what age do embryos look the same?

up to 8 weeks

6

what drives structural changes?

hormones

boys get a testosterone bath

7

Where do the testes develop?

near the kidneys

8

At what time do the testes descend?

7 months (28 weeks)

9

where do the testis drop?

through the inguinal canal into the scrotum

10

Name the 2 parts of the testis

outer sac
internal contents

11

Name the external genitalia

scrotum
penis

12

name the internal genitalia

prostate
seminal vesicles
Bulbourethral gland
vas deferens
testes

13

Explain the layers of the scrotum from out to in

card image

skin
tunica dartos
external spermatic fascia
cremaster muscle
internal spermatic fascia
tunica vaginalis X2
tunica albuginea

14

what does the external spermatic fascia cover?

the cremaster muscle

15

explain the significance of the tunica vaginalis

it is an double walled covering with a visceral and parietal layer

16

What type of gland is the testi?

endocrine - testosterone
exocrine - sperm

17

what is the outer coat of the testis

card image

tunica albuginea

18

what does the tunica albuginea form?

extends into the testi to form the mediastinum

19

What is the mediastinum testis?

formed from the extension of the tunica albuginea the mediastinum testis radiates into the testi to form 200-300 lobules containing seminiferous tubules

20

what is the function of seminiferous tubules

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spermatogenesis

21

explain the path of sperm after leaving the seminiferous tubules

straight tubules
Rete testis
efferent ducts - head epididymis

22

What arteries supply the testis?

testicular arteries off the aorta

23

what veins drain the testis?

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pampiniform plexus
testicular veins
Rt - IVC
Lt - Lt renal vein

24

Describe the shape of the epididymis

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comma shape

single long convoluted tube

25

How long is the epididymis tube?

20 feet
6 meters

26

Which part of the epididymis is the largest?

head

27

Where does the head lie

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most superior

28

where does the body of the epididymis lie?

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extends along the posterior aspect

29

Where is the tail of the epididymis

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thinnest most inferior part

30

What is problematic of the inguinal canal?

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tends to be weak
common place for hernia

31

What is the spermatic cord composed of?

vas deferens
arteries
veins
nerves
lymphatics
cremaster muscle

32

What is the function of the cremaster muscle?

temperature regulation

33

Seminal vesicles VS seminiferous tubules

seminiferous tubules - spermatogenous
Seminal vesicles -

34

What is the function of the vas deferens?

connect the tail of the epididymis to the prostate

35

How long is the vas deferens?

18 inches

36

Explain the route of the vas deferens.

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travels through the inguinal canal
travels over the top of the pubic bone
swings around to the back side of the bladder

dilates distally to form the ampulla of deferens

joins the seminal vesicles
into the superior section of the prostate

37

What does the epididymis consist of?

3 smooth muscles

38

what is the ampulla of deferens

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dilation of the vas deferens just before it enters the prostate

39

What is the ejactlatory duct?

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vas deferens joins the seminal vesicles

40

What is the function of the seminal vesicles?

secretes 60% of seminal fluid

41

What is the function of the prostate?

produces 30 % of seminal fluid

42

what is the shape of the prostate?

cone shaped

base and apex

43

What does the Prostate consist of?

various regions and zones

44

levator ani muscles

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pelvic floor muscles

45

What is the prostate urethra?

part of the urethra that runs through the prostate

46

bulbourethral gland

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5% of seminal fluid

clear and thick lubricant;
flushing agent that washes out the urethra

47

What is the Cowper’s Gland?

another name for bulbourethral gland

48

Seminal Fluid

60% seminal vesicles
30% prostate
5% bulbourethral gland

49

Appearance of the prostate

hetergenous

50

What are the regions of the prostate?

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veramontanum - prostatic portion of the urethra where the seminal ducts enter

Peripheral zone (PZ)

Central zone (CZ)

Transition zone (TZ)

fibromuscular zone (or stroma)

periurethral zone

51

What is the penis consist of?

3 cylinder masses

2 corpus cavernosum
1 corpus spongiosum

52

Where does the urethra run through the penis?

within the posterior spongiosum

53

what bounds and divided the the three cylinder masses of the penis

card image

tunica albuginea
buck's fascia - fibrous envelope

54

What type of blood engorges penis during erection

venous blood

55

Explain the flow of penile arteries

internal iliacs

internal pudendal

- deep artery of the penis
- corpus cavernosum

- bulbourethral artery
- corpus spongiosum , glans penis

56

Explain venous flow of the penis

superficial and deep dorsal vein
pudendal venous plexus
internal pudendal vein
internal iliac vein

57
card image

...

58

What do Reproduction organs begin from?

2 urogenital folds

59

What does the urogenital folds consist of?

  • gonad
  • mesonephros
60

What does the mesonephos develop into

  • metanephos
  • urogential sinus
61

What does the gonad develop into

  • mesonephric duct
  • paramesonephric duct
62

What does the paramesonephric duct develop into?

female genitalia

  • vagina
  • uterus
  • fallopian tubes
63

What does the mesonephric duct develop into?

male genitalia

  • testis
  • penis
64

What is the wolfian duct

mesonephric duct

65

What is the mullerian duct

paramesonephric duct

66

Which gender has mullerian and wolfian ducts?

both

67

What happens when there is an incomplete fusion of mullerian duct?

congenital malformations

68
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Where is the fundus?

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upper rounded portion

69
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Where is the cornua?

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the attachment of the fallopian tubes into the fundus

70
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Where is the corpus

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body

71
card image

Where is the cervix?

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extends into the vagina

72
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Where is the isthmus?

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between corpus and cervix

73

What is a bicornuate uterus

card image
74

What is didelphys uterus?

card image
75

What is unicollis uterus?

card image
76

What is subseptus uterus?

card image
77

What region does the pelvis occupy?

  • left iliac
  • hypogastic
  • right iliac
78

How is the pelvis divided?

linea terminalis

  • true pelvis
  • false pelvis
79

Where is the true pelvis?

diaphragm - linea terminalis

posterior/inferior cavity that extends backwards into the skeletal framework

80

Where is the false pelvis?

linea terminalis - iliac crest

81

What is the shape of the true pelvis?

bowl shape

82

What is the area called between the uterus and the bladder?

anterior culdesac

83

What is the area called between the uterus and the rectum?

posterior culdesac

84

Where is the uterus compared to the bladder?

posterior

85

Where is the uterus compared to the sigmoid colon?

anterior

86

the peritoneum lines which walls of the uterus?

anterior and posterior

87

the vagina lies where to the bladder?

posterior

88

the vagina lies where to the rectum?

anterior

89

How do the fallopian tubes lie to the uterus?

lateral

90

Where is the fallopian tubes to the peritoneum?

course with in the folds of the broad ligament

91

In what area are the ovaries located?

in the adnexa

92

Where is the adnexa?

peritoneal cavity space located posterior to the broad ligament

93

Ureters & internal iliac vessels lie ________ to ovaries.

posteriomedial

94

External iliac vessels lie ________ to ovaries.

anteriolateral

95

What is the size of the uterus?

8 cm x 5.5 cm x 3 cm

long x thick x wide

96

What is the length of the cervix?

2-3 cm long

97

How is the uterus in multiparous women compared to nulliparous woman?

Larger

98

What is uterine size in children

2.5 cm x 1 cm x 2 cm

long x thick x wide

99

What is the size of the ovaries during reproductive years?

3 cm x 5 cm x 2 cm

long x thick x wide

2.5-5 cm x .6-2.2 cm x 1.5-3 cm

100

What is the ovarian volume?

6 - 13 cc

101

What is the ovarian volume formula?

.523 x L x W x T (cm)

102

What is the size of the ovaries post menopausal?

2 x 1 x 2 cm

103

what muscle starts at the arcuate line and makes up the anterior lateral walls of the pelvis?

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obturator internus

104

What muscle starts posterior and works anterior through the sciatic notch, makes up posterior wall lateral wall of the pelvis?

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piriformis

105

What muscle produces a hammock which supports the muscles in the true pelvis?

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levator ani

106

What are the two muscles that make up the levator ani in the female pelvis?

pubococcygeus

iliococcygeus

107

Which muscle makes up the medial and anterior floor of the female pelvis?

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pubococcygeus

108

Which muscle makes up the lateral floor of the female pelvis?

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iliococcygeus

109

Which muscle makes up the posterior floor of the female pelvis?

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coccygeus

110

What is found within the folds of the broad ligament?

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fallopian tubes

round ligament

ovarian ligament

blood vessels

111

What is the broad ligament?

peritoneal folds

112

Explain how the broad ligament extends around the uterus.

extends from the uterine cornea to the lateral walls of the uterus.

113

What is the area posterior to the broad ligament called?

adnexa

114

Which ligament gives the uterus its characteristic forward bend?

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round

115

Which ligament extends from the upper cervix to lateral walls of the pelvis?

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cardinal ligament

116

Which ligament extends from the posterior cervix to the sacrum?

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uterosacral

117

What is the space called between the symphysis and bladder?

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space of Retzius

118

What is in the space of Retzius?

adipose

119

Where is the vessicouterine pouch?

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posterior to the bladder

120

What is another name for the vessicouterine pouch?

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anterior cul de sac

121

Where is the trigone region of the bladder?

posterior inferior

122

What is the muscle of the bladder?

detrussor

123

Where is the pouch of douglas in the female pelvis?

card image

between the rectum and the uterus

124

What is another name for the pouch of douglas?

posterior cul de sac

125

Which pouch is the most dependent?

pouch of douglas

126

What extends from the uterus to the external genitalia?

vagina

127

How long is the vagina?

9 cm

128

What forms the fornices?

the cervix extending into the vagina

129

Name the fornices

anterior

posterior

left

right

130

What are the layers of the vaginal walls?

mucosa

muscularis

adventia

131

Explain the vaginal walls

usually collapsed with walls forming rugae

132

What is the shape of the uterus?

pear

133

What is the endometrium?

mucus producing inside layer

divided into 2 layers

zona functionalis

zona basal layer

134

What is the zona functionalis?

the most interior portion of the endometrium this layer is shed every month

135

What is the zona basal?

the second layer of the endometrium, this layer produces the zona functionalis

136

What is the myometrium?

middle muscle layer of the uterus

137

What type of muscle makes up the myometrium?

longitudinal and circular smooth muscle

138

What is parturition?

the action or process of giving birth to offspring

139

Which layer of the uterus causes contractions during parturition?

myometrium

140

What is the uterine serosa?

AKA perimetrium

thin connective tissue layer on the outside

141

What is anteversion?

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normal position

142

What is anteflexion?

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bent forward

143

What is retroversion?

card image
144

What is retroflexion?

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bent back wards

145

Where does fertilization usually occur?

ampulla of the fallopian tubes

146

name the parts of the fallopian tubes

fimbriae

infundibulum

ampulla

isthmus

interstitial

147

What is fimbriae?

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finger like structures at the end of the fallopian tubes that surround the ovary

148

Where is the infundibulum of the fallopian tubes?

card image
149

Where is the ampulla of the fallopian tubes?

card image
150

Where is the isthmus of the fallopian tubes?

card image
151

Where is the interstitial of the fallopian tubes?

card image
152

How long are the fallopian tubes?

10 cm

153

Explain how the ovum is moved through the fallopian tubes.

gentle pulsated motion

ciliated

mucus

peristalsing muscle layers

154

What is the shape of the ovaries?

almond

155

Are the ovaries covered by peritoneum?

NO

how would fertilization occur?

156

What are the ovaries consist of?

cortex

medulla

hillium

157

Where are the ovaries to the broad ligament?

posterior

158

What is the ovarian cortex responsible for?

production of ova

159

Where are the ovarian follicles located?

in the cortex

160

epithelial - germinal layer

...

161

What are the ovaries held in place by?

ovarian ligament

infundibulopelvic ligaments

162

What does the medulla of the ovaries consist of?

arteries, veins, nerves, lymphatics

163

What part of the pelvic colon is in the true pelvis?

sigmoid

rectum

164

is the rectum peritoneal?

no

165

Where does the rectum lie compared to the vagina?

posterior

166

explain the vasculature of the pelvis

card image

descending aorta

common iliac

internal iliac

uterine

arcuate

radial

straight spiral

167

what does the uterine artery branch into?

vaginal

uterine

168

What surrounds the uterine arteries?

folds of the broad ligament

169

What do the straight arteries feed?

surface of the uteries

170

Once the uterine arteries enter the uterus what are the branches?

arcuate

radial

171

Where do the ovarian arteries arise?

aorta

172

What does the ovarian arteries join?

the ovarian branch of the uterine artery

173

within the female pelvis veins match arteries

...