Chapter 61

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Care of Patients with Liver Problems
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1

Common causes of Cirrhosis

hepatitis C, alcoholism, and biliary obstruction

2

Signs of hepatic encephalopathy

sleep and/or mood disturbance, change in mental status, & speech problems

3

Most reliable indicator of fluid retention

taking daily weights

4

Interventions for the patient with hepatopulmonary syndrome

monitor SO2, apply O2 if necessary, elevate head of bed at least 30 degrees, elevate feet, & weigh patient daily

5

Self Management of Viral Hepatitis

avoid all medications and alcohol, rest frequently, eat small, frequent meals with high-carb and moderate-fat & protein intake, and avoid sex until antibody testing is negative

6

Key features of liver trauma

right upper quadrant pain, abdominal distention, guarding, rigidity, and pain that is increased with deep breathing and referred to the right shoulder.

7

Spread of Hepatitis A

fecal-oral route, person-person contact, or consuming contaminated food/water

8

Spread of Hepatitis B

unprotected sex, sharing needles, accidental needle sticks, blood transfusions, hemodialysis, maternal-fetal route, person-person contact

9

Spread of Hepatitis C

sharing needles, blood products, needle stick injury, unsanitary tattoo equipment, sharing intranasal cocaine paraphernalia

10

Signs of liver transplant rejection

tachycardia, fever, flank pain, jaundice, and decreased bile