What is the process of bone tissue formation called?
When does the formation of the bony skeleton start?
2nd month of development
True or False: Bone remodeling and repair occurs throughout the lifetime
True or False: Postnatal bone growth occurs until early adulthood
What are the types of ossification?
During what type of ossification do bones form by replacing cartilage, and forms most of the skeleton?
During what type of ossification do bones develop from fibrous membrane, forming flat bones like the clavicle and cranial bones?
What type of ossification requires the breakdown of hyaline cartilage prior to ossification?
Where does endochondral ossification begin?
At the primary ossification center in the center of the bone shaft
During endochondral ossification, what invades the cavities in the diaphysis, forming spongy bone?
Intramembranous ossification begins with fibrous connective tissue membranes formed by what?
During intramembranous ossification, lamellar bone replaces woven bone and what appears?
What type of postnatal bone growth increases the length of long bones?
What type of postnatal bone growth increases bone thickness?
Interstitial growth requires the presence of what?
During endochondral ossification, the primary site is the __________ and the secondary site is the ___________.
When endochondral ossification is complete, hyaline cartilage only remains in the what?
Which bone marking is an armlike band of bone?
What bone marking is a hole/opening in the bone?
What bone marking is a canal-like passageway?
What builds bones?
What resorps bones?
Where are the osteoblasts and osteoclasts located?
under the periosteum
True or False: At the end of interstitial growth, the epiphyseal plate becomes calcified, forming a line.
During appositional growth, osteoblasts and osteoclasts are constantly secreting and removing, which is called?
What regulates bone growth?
growth hormone, thyroid hormone, testosterone and estrogen
Which hormone is most important in stimulating epiphyseal plate activity in infancy and childhood?
Which hormone modulates the activity of growth hormone and ensures proper proportions?
Which hormone promotes adolescent growth spurts and ends growth by inducing epiphyseal plate closure?
How often is spongy bone replaced?
How often is compact bone replaced?
every 10 years
Bone remodeling occurs where?
surfaces of periosteum and endosteum
What is the unmineralized band of bone matrix?
What is the abrupt transition zone between osteoid seam and older mineralized bone?
When calcium levels are too low, it results in?
When calcium levels are too high, it results in?
Sustained high blood calcium levels, involving deposits of calcium salts in blood vessels, is called?
What hormones affect bone density?
Which hormone is released by adipose tissue and plays a role in bone density regulation?
Which hormone is a neurotransmitter regulating mood and sleep, is made in the gut, and is secreted into the blood after eating? Also interferes with osteoblast activity
What describes that bones grow or remodel in response to the demands placed on it?
What determines whether and when remodeling occurs to changing blood calcium levels?
What determines where bone remodeling occurs?
Fractures in youth result mostly from what?
Fractures in elderly result mostly from what?
In what type of fracture do the bone ends retain their normal position?
In what type of fracture are bone ends out of normal alignment?
In what type of fracture are bones broken all the way through?
In what type of fracture are bones NOT broken all the way through?
In what type of fracture is the skin penetrated?
In what type of fracture is the skin NOT penetrated?
In what type of fracture is the bone fragmented into three or more pieces?
In what type of fracture is the bone crushed?
In what type of fracture is there a ragged break due to excessive twisting forces applied to the bone?
In what type of fracture does the epiphysis separate from the diaphysis along the epiphyseal plate?
In what type of fracture is the broken bone portion pressed inward, common in skull fractures?
In what type of fracture does the bone break incompletely, with only one side of the shaft breaking?
During what type of reduction does the physician manipulate to the correct position?
During what type of reduction do surgical pins or wires secure the ends of bones?
What happens during the first stage of bone repair?
hematoma (clot) forms
What happens during the second stage of bone repair?
fibrocartilaginous callsu forms
What happens during the third stage of bone repair?
bony callus forms
What happens in the fourth stage of bone repair?
bone remodeling occurs
In what condition are bones poorly mineralized, calcium salts not adequate, resulting in soft weak bones and pain upon bearing weight?
What condition results in bowed legs and other bone deformities where bone ends are enlarged and abnormaly long, caused by vitamin D deficiency or insufficient dietary calcium?
What is the group of diseases where bone resorption outpaces deposit?
In what condition is there excessive and haphazard bone deposit and resorption, where bone is made fast and poorly, with a high ratio of spongy bone to compact bone?
What type of bone marking is a large rounded projection that may be roughened?
What bone marking is a narrow ridge of bone, usually prominent?