Human Anatomy & Physiology: Bones and Skeletal Tissues (Part 2) Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 8 years ago by lby311
1,073 views
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

What is the process of bone tissue formation called?

Ossification

2

When does the formation of the bony skeleton start?

2nd month of development

3

True or False: Bone remodeling and repair occurs throughout the lifetime

True

4

True or False: Postnatal bone growth occurs until early adulthood

True

5

What are the types of ossification?

Endochondral, intramembranous

6

During what type of ossification do bones form by replacing cartilage, and forms most of the skeleton?

Endochondral

7

During what type of ossification do bones develop from fibrous membrane, forming flat bones like the clavicle and cranial bones?

Intramembranous

8

What type of ossification requires the breakdown of hyaline cartilage prior to ossification?

Endochondral

9

Where does endochondral ossification begin?

At the primary ossification center in the center of the bone shaft

10

During endochondral ossification, what invades the cavities in the diaphysis, forming spongy bone?

Periosteal bud

11

Intramembranous ossification begins with fibrous connective tissue membranes formed by what?

Mesenchymal cells

12

During intramembranous ossification, lamellar bone replaces woven bone and what appears?

Red marrow

13

What type of postnatal bone growth increases the length of long bones?

Interstitial

14

What type of postnatal bone growth increases bone thickness?

Appositional

15

Interstitial growth requires the presence of what?

Epiphyseal cartilage

16

During endochondral ossification, the primary site is the __________ and the secondary site is the ___________.

diaphysis, epiphysis

17

When endochondral ossification is complete, hyaline cartilage only remains in the what?

Ephiphyseal plate

18

Which bone marking is an armlike band of bone?

Remus

19

What bone marking is a hole/opening in the bone?

Sinus

20

What bone marking is a canal-like passageway?

Meatus

21

What builds bones?

osteoblasts

22

What resorps bones?

osteoclasts

23

Where are the osteoblasts and osteoclasts located?

under the periosteum

24

True or False: At the end of interstitial growth, the epiphyseal plate becomes calcified, forming a line.

True

25

During appositional growth, osteoblasts and osteoclasts are constantly secreting and removing, which is called?

bone remodeling

26

What regulates bone growth?

growth hormone, thyroid hormone, testosterone and estrogen

27

Which hormone is most important in stimulating epiphyseal plate activity in infancy and childhood?

growth hormone

28

Which hormone modulates the activity of growth hormone and ensures proper proportions?

thyroid hormone

29

Which hormone promotes adolescent growth spurts and ends growth by inducing epiphyseal plate closure?

testosterone/estrogen

30

How often is spongy bone replaced?

3-4 years

31

How often is compact bone replaced?

every 10 years

32

Bone remodeling occurs where?

surfaces of periosteum and endosteum

33

What is the unmineralized band of bone matrix?

osteoid seam

34

What is the abrupt transition zone between osteoid seam and older mineralized bone?

calcification front

35

When calcium levels are too low, it results in?

hyperexcitability

36

When calcium levels are too high, it results in?

nonresponsiveness

37

Sustained high blood calcium levels, involving deposits of calcium salts in blood vessels, is called?

hypercalcemia

38

What hormones affect bone density?

leptin, serotonin

39

Which hormone is released by adipose tissue and plays a role in bone density regulation?

Leptin

40

Which hormone is a neurotransmitter regulating mood and sleep, is made in the gut, and is secreted into the blood after eating? Also interferes with osteoblast activity

Serotonin

41

What describes that bones grow or remodel in response to the demands placed on it?

Wolff's Law

42

What determines whether and when remodeling occurs to changing blood calcium levels?

hormonal controls

43

What determines where bone remodeling occurs?

mechanical stress

44

Fractures in youth result mostly from what?

trauma

45

Fractures in elderly result mostly from what?

bone thinning

46

In what type of fracture do the bone ends retain their normal position?

nondisplaced

47

In what type of fracture are bone ends out of normal alignment?

displaced

48

In what type of fracture are bones broken all the way through?

complete

49

In what type of fracture are bones NOT broken all the way through?

incomplete

50

In what type of fracture is the skin penetrated?

open/compound

51

In what type of fracture is the skin NOT penetrated?

closed/simple

52

In what type of fracture is the bone fragmented into three or more pieces?

comminuted

53

In what type of fracture is the bone crushed?

compression

54

In what type of fracture is there a ragged break due to excessive twisting forces applied to the bone?

spiral

55

In what type of fracture does the epiphysis separate from the diaphysis along the epiphyseal plate?

Epiphyseal

56

In what type of fracture is the broken bone portion pressed inward, common in skull fractures?

depression

57

In what type of fracture does the bone break incompletely, with only one side of the shaft breaking?

greenstick

58

During what type of reduction does the physician manipulate to the correct position?

open

59

During what type of reduction do surgical pins or wires secure the ends of bones?

open

60

What happens during the first stage of bone repair?

hematoma (clot) forms

61

What happens during the second stage of bone repair?

fibrocartilaginous callsu forms

62

What happens during the third stage of bone repair?

bony callus forms

63

What happens in the fourth stage of bone repair?

bone remodeling occurs

64

In what condition are bones poorly mineralized, calcium salts not adequate, resulting in soft weak bones and pain upon bearing weight?

Osteomalacia

65

What condition results in bowed legs and other bone deformities where bone ends are enlarged and abnormaly long, caused by vitamin D deficiency or insufficient dietary calcium?

rickets

66

What is the group of diseases where bone resorption outpaces deposit?

osteoporosis

67

In what condition is there excessive and haphazard bone deposit and resorption, where bone is made fast and poorly, with a high ratio of spongy bone to compact bone?

Paget's disease

68

What type of bone marking is a large rounded projection that may be roughened?

tuberosity

69

What bone marking is a narrow ridge of bone, usually prominent?

crest