Chapter 60

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What are some non-surgical interventions done for peritonitis?

IV fluids and broad-spectrum antibiotics
Monitor daily weight
Monitor I&O
NGT decompression
NPO diet
Pain medication


Define Gastroenteritis.

Gastroenteritis is an increase in the frequency and water content of stools and/or vomiting as a result of inflammation of the mucous membranes of the stomach and intestinal tract.


In patients with ulcerative colitis what lab results will be abnormal?

An increased WBC count, C-reactive protein, or erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is consistent with inflammatory disease. Sodium potassium and chloride may be low as well.


What are some clinical manifestations of Crohn's disease?

abdomen distention, masses, or visible peristalsis. Perianal ulcerations, fissures or fistulas. Decreased or absent bowel sounds. Muscle guarding, massess, rigidity, tenderness upon palpation.
Constant abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant; weight loss


Explain the pathophysiology of diverticular disease.

Diverticulosis is the presence of many abnormal pouch-like herniations (diverticula) in the wall of the intestine. Diverticulitis is the inflammation of one or more diverticula.


Define anorectal abscess, anal fissure, and anal fistula.

(1) Anorectal abscess: localized area of induration and pus caused by inflammation of the soft tissue near the rectum or anus; most often the result of obstruction of the ducts of the glands in the anorectal region.
(2) Anal fissure: a tear in the anal lining which can be very painful; can happen as a result of straining during defecation.
(3) Anal fistula: an abnormal tract leading from the anal canal to the perianal skin; usually as a result of anorectal abscesses


What uncooked foods would you tell your patient to avoid in order to prevent Salmonella food poisoning?

Eggs, beef, poultry, and green leafy vegetables


What are the symptoms of staphylococcal food poisoning?

abrupt onset of vomiting, abdominal cramping, and diarrhea. These symptoms can appear 2-4 hours after ingesting the contaminated food. Symptoms rarely last more than 24 hours.


What serious complications can occur as a result of E. coli infection?

hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome


Describe the clinical manifestations of Botulism.

After 18 to 36 hours incubation period, symptoms occur.
Initial symptoms are double vision, dysphagia, and slurred speech.
Nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain occur before the onset of paralysis.
Then weakness can progress rapidly from the neck down to the legs. Paralytic ileus and urinary retention can occur.