PS 101 Chapter 7
the process of acquiring through experience new and relatively enduring information or behaviors
learning that certain events occur together. the events may be two stimuli or a response and its consequences.
and event or situation that evokes a response
the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language.
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response.
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer.
a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced.
a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) and not (2)
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning.
neutral stimulus (NS)
in classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned response (US) (such as food in the mouth)
unconditioned response (UR)
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response (UR)
unconditioned stimulus (US)
in classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus. (CS)
conditioned response (CR)
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response. (CR)
conditioned stimulus (CS)
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
an event that tends to decrease the behavior it follows.
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus.
behavior that operates on the environment, producing the consequences.
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
(1) in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus (2) in social psychology, unjustifiable negative behavior towards a group and its members.
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake.
a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment.
learning by observing others
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.