Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology: Blood Flashcards


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1

Cardiovascular System consists of......

-a pump (heart)
-a conducting system (blood vessels)
-a fluid medium (blood)

2

Blood

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-a specialized fluid of connective tissue that contains cells suspended in a fluid matrix

3

Important functions of blood...

-Transportation of dissolved substances
-Regulation of pH and ions
-Restriction of fluid losses at injury sites
-Defense against toxins and pathogens
-Stabilization of body temperature

4

Whole Blood

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-combination of plasma and formed elements

5

Plasma

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fluid matrix of blood consisting of:
1.water
2.dissolved plasma proteins
3.other solutes

6

Formed Elements

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-blood cells and cell fragments that are suspended in plasma

7

Three Types of Formed Elements

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-red blood cells/erythrocytes
-white blood cells/leukocytes
-platelets/thrombocytes

8

Red Blood Cells/Erythrocytes

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-transport oxygen from lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs)
-make up 99.9% of blood's formed elements
-small and highly specialized discs
-thin in middle and thicker at edge
-lack nuclei, mitochondria, and ribosomes (means no repair and anaerobic metabolism)
-lives for about 120 days

9

White Blood Cells/Leukocytes

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-part of the immune system
-ex: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes
-does not have hemoglobin
-have nuclei and other organelles

10

Platelets/Thrombocytes

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-cell fragments involved in clotting

11

Hemopoiesis

-process of producing formed elements by myeloid and lymphoid stem cells

12

Fractionation

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-process of separating whole blood for clinical analysis

13

General Characteristics of Blood

1. 38 degrees C (100.4 degress F) is normal temperature, slightly above normal body temperature
2.High Viscosity
3.SLightly alkaline pH (7.35-7.45)
4.Blood volume (liters)= 7% of body weight (adult male 5-6 liters; female 4-5 liters)

14

The Composition of Plasma

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-makes up 50-60% of blood volume
-more than 90% of plasma is water

15

Plasma Proteins

-Albumins (60%)
-Globulins (35%)
-Fibrinogen (4%)

16

Albumins

-makes up 60% of the plasma proteins
-transports nutrients such as fatty acids, thyroid hormones, and steroid hormones

17

Three Important Effects of RBC Shape on FUnction

-high surface to volume ratio (quickly absorbs and releases oxygen)
-discs form stacks called rouleax (smooth the flow through narrow blood vessels)
-discs bend and flex entering small capillaries

18

Globulins

--makes up 35% of the plasma proteins
-antibodies, also called immunoglobulins
-transport globulins (small molecules): hormone-binding proteins, metalloproteins, apolipoprotein (lipoproteins), and steroid-binding proteins

19

Fibrinogen

-makes up only 4% of plasma proteins
-molecules that form clots and produce long, insoluble strands of fibrin

20

Serum

-liquid part of a blood sample, in which dissolved fibrinogen has converted to solid fibrin

21

Other Plasma Proteins

-1% of plasma proteins
-changing quantities of specialized plasma proteins

22

Origins of Plasma Proteins

-more than 90% is made in the liver
-antibodies made by plasma cells
-peptide hormones made by endocrine organs

23

Hemoglobin

-the red pigment that gives whole blood its color
-binds and transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
-complex quaternary structure

24

Fetal Hemoglobin

-strong form of hemoglobin found in embryos
-takes oxygen from mothers hemoglobin

25

Erythropoiesis

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-red blood cell formation, occurs only in myeloid tissue (red bone marrow) in adults
-stem cells mature to become RBCs

26

Stages of RBC Maturation

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1.Myeloid stem cell
2.Proerythroblast
3.Erythroblasts
4.Reticulocyte
5.Mature RBC

27

RBC Formation and Turnover

-1% of circulating RBCs are replaced each day
-3 million new RBCs enter the bloodstream each second

28

Hemoglobin Conversion and Recycling

-macrophages of liver, spleen, and bone marrow play a role in recycling RBC components
-each heme unit is stripped of its iron and converted to biliverdin

29

Biliverdin

-an organic compound with a green color

30

Breakdown of Biliverdin

-biliverdin is converted to bilirubin

31

Iron Recycling

-iron removed from heme leaving biliverdin

32

Hemocytoblasts

-stem cells in myeloid tissue divide to produce:
(1) Myeloid stem cells, which become RBCs and some WBCs
(2) Lymphoid stem cells, become lymphocytes

33

Regulation of Erythropoiesis

-building red blood cells requires:
(1) Amino Acids
(2) Iron
(3) Vitamins - B12, B6, and folic acid

34

Pernicious Anemia

-Vitamin B12 deficiency
-Low RBC production

35

Erythropoietin (Erythropoiesis-stimulating hormone)

-secreted when oxygen in peripheral tissues is low (hypoxia)

36

Hematocrit (Hct)

-percentage of formed elements in whole blood
-normal hematocrit 37-54%%

37

Reticulocyte Count

-percentage of circulating reticulocytes
-normal reticulocyte count 0.8%

38

Hemoglobin Concentration

-concentration of hemoglobin in blood
-normal 12-18 g/dl

39

Surface Antigens

-surface proteins that identify cells to immune system
-normal cells are ignored and foreign cells are attacked

40

Blood Types

-genetically determined, by presence or absence of RBC surface antigens A, B, or RH

41

Four Blood Types

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A, B, AB, O

42

Type A (blood type)

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surface antigen A
*anti-B antibodies will attack type B surface antigens

43

Type B (blood type)

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surface antigen B
*anti-A antibodies will attack type A surface antigens

44

Type AB (blood type)

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antigens A and B
*has neither anti-A or anti-B antibodies

45

Type O (blood type)

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-has neither A or B antigens

46

Agglutinogens

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-antigens on surface of RBCs
-screened by immune system

47

Cross-Reactions in Transfusions

-plasma antibody meets its specific surface antigen, blood will clump and hemolyze
-occurs if donor and recipient blood types are not compatible

48

WBC Functions

-defend against pathogens
-remove toxins and wastes
-attack abnormal cells

49

Granulocytes

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-cells with abundant stained granules
*neutrophils
*eosinophils
*basophils

50

Aggranulocytes

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-few if any stained granules
*monocytes
*lymphocytes

51

Neutrophils

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makes up 50-70% of circulating WBC
-nucleus can have 2 to 5 lobes (resembling beads on a string)
-cytoplasm is packed with pale granules containing lysosomal enzymes and bactericidal compounds
-very to attack bacteria