Seeley's Anatomy & Physiology: Chapter 10 Flashcards


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Muscular System:Gross anatomy
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1

Aponeuroses

Broad sheet-like CT that attaches muscle to bone.

2

A muscle that produces most of the force during a particular joint action

Agonist (Prime Mover)

3

Agonist (prime mover)

A muscle that produces most of the force during a particular joint action.

4

Classes of muscles based upon the arrangement of the fasciculi

1. Fusiform
2. Circular
3. Convergent
4. Parallel
5. Pennate

5

These muscles have fascicles that arrive at one common tendon from a wide area & create muscles that are triangular in shape

Convergent Muscles

6

Convergent Muscles

These muscles have fascicles that arrive at one common tendon from a wide area & create muscles that are triangular in shape

7

Fusiform

Muscle fibers that run the length of the muscle & tapers at each end.

8

Muscle fibers that run the length of the muscle & tapers at each end.

Fusiform

9

Bones=Levers
Joints=Fulcrums

...

10

Class I Lever

Weight-fulcrum-pull

11

Bipennate

A muscle that has fascicles that originate on both sides of a tendon that runs the length of the muscle.

12

A muscle that has fascicles that originate on both sides of a tendon that runs the length of the muscle.

Bipennate

13

Multipennate

Shaped like a bunch of feathers with their quills converging on a single point.

14

Shaped like a bunch of feathers with their quills converging on a single point.

Multipennate

15

A muscle that has fascicles that originate on one side on a tendon that run the length of the muscle.

Unipennate

16

Unipennate

A muscle that has fascicles that originate on one side on a tendon that run the length of the muscle.

17

Skeletal muscles extend from one bone to another and from one bone to skin on the other.

True or False

True

18

Action

Movement accomplished by a muscle when it contracts

19

Origin (of a muscle)

Usually the most stationary and most proximal end of the muscle.
Two types: fixed end and head

20

Insertion

(Mobile end) Usually the most distal end attached to the bone undergoing the most movement.

21

Belly

Region between the origin and insertion.

22

Tendon

Long cable-like structures that are responsible for attaching muscle to bone.

23

Agonist

The muscles accomplishing a movement.

24

Antagonist

Muscles opposing the movement of the agonist.

25

Synergists

Members of a group of muscles working together to produce a movement.
Ex: Biceps brachii & brachialis function in elbow flexion

26

Prime mover

The muscle responsible for the major role accomplishing the desired movement.
Ex: Brachialis

27

Fixator

Muscles that hold one bone in place relative to the body while a more distal bone is moved.
Ex: Muscles in the scapula to keep the shoulder stationary while humerus is moving.

28

What influences the degree to which a muscle can contract and the amount of force generated?

The shape and size of a muscle.

29

3 Major classes based on fasciculi orientation

1. Pennate
2. Straight
3. Orbicular

30

Types of pennate muscles

1. Unipennate (semipennate)
2. Bipennate
3. Multipennate

31

Unipennate/semipennate

All fasciculi are on one side of the tendon.

32

Bipennate

Fasciculi arranged like the barbs of a feather on two sides of a tendon.

33

Multipennate

Fasciculi arranged at many places around the central tendon.
(Muscle extending from knee)

34

Straight muscle

Fasciculi are arranged parallel to the long axis of the muscle.

35

Orbicular muscle

Fasiculi are arranged in a circle around an opening and act as sphincters to close and open.

36

How are muscles named?

1. Location
2. Size
3. Shape
4. Orientation of fasciculi
5. Origin and Insertion
6. Number of heads
7. Function

37

Shapes of muscles

1. Quadrate
2. Rhomboidal
3. Fusiform
4.Trapezium
5. Triangular
6. Digastric
7. Bicipital

38

What is a lever?

Ridged structure that can move around a fixed point.

39

What is a fulcrum?

The fixed point.

40

Effort (Pull)

Causes the movement or the contraction of the bicep.

41

Resistance (Weight)

Opposes the movement.

42

Class I Lever

L(oad) - F(ulcrum) - E(ffort or Pull)

43

Class II Lever

F(ulcrum) - L(oad) - E(ffort or Pull)

44

Class III Lever

F(ulcrum) - E(ffort or Pull) - L(oad)