TAP Chapter 26
Harry S. Truman
Truman, a moderate Democratic senator from Missouri, was chosen by FDR to be his VP for his fourth term. FDR dies in the first year of that term. Truman succeeded him as President in 1945, just before the end of WWII and the birth of the Cold War. He served as President until 1953.
George Kennan is best known for his "containment theory" of how best to handle the aggressive tendencies of the USSR after WWII. Kennan, a life-long diplomat and Russian historian, believed that the USSR was territorially ambitious because of Russian nationalism and Communist internationalism. The US had to be prepared for a "long twilight struggle" against that ambition.
Henry Wallace (BHATIA)
Henry A. Wallace was President Truman's former Secretary of Commerce and vice president. Wallace had insisted that a "greater understanding" of USSR's concerns and their security was necessary. He is also known for his claim "we have no more business in the political affiars of Eastern Europe than Russia has in the political affiars of Latin America" (833).
George Marshall (BHATIA)
George C. Marshall was a Former general who was known for creating the "Marshall plan", a part of the European Recovery program approved by Congress in 1948. The plan was that over the next 5 years, the United States would give $13 billion to secure the poor economies of 16 Western European nations. This was created so that these nations wouldn't turn to Communistic pressures from the USSR out of economic desperation.
Jackie Robinson (VEERAMANI)
Jackie Robinson was responsible for the integration of Major League Baseball, when he played for the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947. He overcame racial harassment from fans and other baseball players to win the Rookie of the Year Award in the same year.
Joseph R. McCarthy/McCarthyism (VEERAMANI)
Joseph R. McCarthy was part of a group of Republican senators who attacked the New Deal and during the Cold War, tried to accuse Democrats of international destruction. McCarthy believed that "the Communists within out borders have been more responsible for the success of the Communism abroad than Soviet Russia" and made many ridiculous, unfounded claims of different people of power were Communists. Even though his claims were known to be ludicrous, he was covered extemsively by the media, so much so that, the term McCarthyism came to be interchangeable with the anti-Communism movement.
Ethel & Julius Rosenberg (VEERAMANI)
Ethel & Julius Rosenberg were convicted and executed for committing treason against the United States (espionage). They were Communists who passed on confidential information to the Soviet Union regarding the the atomic bomb used to end World War II. They mantained innoncence throughout the trial, but were sentenced to death on April 5, 1951.
Richard M. Nixon (BHATIA)
Richard Nixon is known for being the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower. He helped to ensure that Eisenhower's goal was to promote anti-communism as he was a part of the HUAC, and a strict anti-communist.
Iron Curtain speech (VEERAMANI)
The Iron Curtain speech was delivered by Winston Churchill (in Fulton, Missouri) that set a figurative line dividing Europe during the Cold War. It was made at the start of the Cold War and believed to set the tone for the war. Stalin regarded the speech as "a call to war against the USSR."
Truman Doctrine (VEERAMANI)
The Truman doctrine oulined the United States' plan of extending economic and military aid towards Greece and Turkey, which were at the time in danger of a communist (Soviet Union) invasion. This action was triggered by Britain's admission of not being able to monetarily aid the two counties any longer. Congress provided 400 million dollars in total aid to both countries, in an effort to help free countries resist communist takeovers.
Containment was a a Cold War policy employed by the United States in an effort to stop Soviet Union expansion. It involved maintaining the US military occupancy internationally and aid in strengthening allied governments with similar interests.
Marshall Plan (VEERAMANI)
The Marshall Plan (also known as the European Recovery Program) was implemented to restore the economies of sixteen Western European nations. All European nations were invited to ask for aid, even the Soviet Union, but they declined because they objected to terms of the plan. The Soviet Union also urged their surrounding European countries to decline.
Berlin Airlift (VEERAMANI)
The Berlin Airlift was the act of the Allied countries 'airlifting' supplies into West Berlin because of a Soviet Union blockade that checked the flow of supplies to the city. It occurred after World War II, when the German city of Berlin was divided into sections controlled by different countries. Supplies that were intended for West Berlin had to pass through the Soviet section of the city, but because of tensions between the Soviet Union and the West, the Soviet Union gradually increased interference of supplies to the point where the Berlin Airlift was the only way for the city to obtain supplies.
National Security Act of 1947 (VEERAMANI)
The National Security Act of 1947 centralized all divisions of the military under one Secretary of Defense and introduced the National Security Council (NSC)to counsel the president on defense matters and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to gather information - especially on matters related to national security. In addition, the Department of War was renamed the Department of Defense to make the distinction that defense, unlike war, was a permanent issue.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (BHATIA)
The post WWII group of allies consisting of the US. Canada, and several other Western European nations in order to stop the attempts of expansion from USSR. Each had also promised to go to war if any ally was under attack.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (VEERAMANI)
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was created by the National Security Act of 1947 to gether intelligence and execute "functions and duties related to intelligence affecting the national security" that the National Security Council authorized. The CIA helped to defeat Italy's Communist Party in the election of 1948. However, they also negatively intervened in successful foreign governments and violated citizens' rights in the U.S. The CIA was not held accountable by Congress or civilians.
Third World (VEERAMANI)
The 'third world' was a term coined in the mid-1900s that distinguished the developing countries that were not aligned with capitalist countries (the first world) nor communist countries (the second world).
Fair Deal (VEERAMANI)
The Fair Deal was the name of Harry S. Truman's 21-point policy that outlined the United States' conversion from wartime policies to peacetime policies. From the Fair Deal, Congress passed the Employment Act of 1964, which differed from Truman's original plan for full employment for all.
President's Committee on Civil Rights/ To Secure These Rights (VEERAMANI)
The President's Committee on Civil Rights was a daring move made by Truman to address racial inequality. He urged Congress to listen to and carry out the Committee's plans to create equality. Truman addressed the NAACP and vocalized his belief that all Americans should have the same rights to housing, education, employment, and voting. However, Congress did not enact Truman's plans as he had hoped and overall, Truman was not aggressive enough to carry them through. One success, though, came out of Truman's order to desegregate the military, which happened during the Korean War.
Taft-Hartley Act (VEERAMANI)
The Taft-Harley Act was legislation that set restrictions on labor unions. Much of the act focused on the limiting the labor striking that unions did in protest. Other rules include the right to not join a labor union, specifically defining unfair labor practices, and mandating union officials to take an oath stating that they were not affiliated with Communists.
Truman Loyalty Program (VEERAMANI)
The Truman Loyalty Program (also known as Executive Order 9835) was Truman's response to the anti-Communism scare during the late 1940s. It installed 'loyalty review boards' throughout every branch of the government to investigate every federal employee. This violated the Bill of Rights because the boards allowed any anonymous tipoffs and forced the accused to provide proof of innocence.
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)(BHATIA)
The committe created by Congress in order to investigate executive branch suspicious officials. This orginization normally took into account the convicted person's political past and present history. In 1947, HUAC also investigated suspicious Hollywood activities.
NSC-68 was a confidential report on the United States' military strength compiled by the National Security Council (NSC). It was written two months before the Korean War began and noted that the military needed much larger numbers and three times the budget than it had (at that point) to survive. However, the Korean War basically took care of military expansion on both accounts.